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Let $C$ be a curve given by $y^5=-x^2+x$ defined over $\overline{\Bbb{F}_{11}}$.

I want to calculate $\# C(\Bbb{F}_{11})$ and $\# C(\Bbb{F}_{11^2})$.

I calculated $\# C(\Bbb{F}_{11})=\#\{(0,0),(1,0),(2,±3),(3,±4),(6,±5),(9, ±4),(10,±3),∞\}=13$(where $∞=(1:0:0)$ in projective closure) by my hand.

But I'm stuck with calculating $\# C(\Bbb{F}_{11^2})$. Maybe there is no method (in other words, theoretical way) to calculate $\# C(\Bbb{F}_{11^2})$ by hand, but calculation with computer is also appreciated.

Background. If over $\Bbb{F}_p$ and $5$ does not divide $p-1$, $y \mapsto y^5$ is bijective, so the number of rational point is $p+1$. $p=5$ maybe(if my above counting is correct) a smallest example s.t. $p$ of $\# C(\Bbb{F}_p)\neq p+1$

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    $\begingroup$ I need to think whether there is a clean way to do this by hand. It is easy to brute force this with Mathematica using $\Bbb{F}_{11^2}\simeq\Bbb{F}_{11}(i)$. It found $102$ affine points. This leads to $-3.04508 \pm 1.31433i$ and $2.54508 \pm 2.12663 i$ as approximate (reciprocal) zeros of the zeta function, and leads to a prediction of $1392$ affine points with coordinates in $\Bbb{F}_{11^3}$ by Hasse-Weil-Davenport. Anyway, you need the tally over both $\Bbb{F}_{11}$ as well as $\Bbb{F}_{11^2}$ to determine those zeros because this is a genus $2$ curve. $\endgroup$ Mar 10, 2023 at 14:19
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    $\begingroup$ Those zeros are the roots of $x^4+x^3-9x^2+11x+121$. $\endgroup$ Mar 10, 2023 at 14:22
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    $\begingroup$ Your zeta means congruent zeta function ? Your second comment's polynomial is essentially numerator of congruent zeta of $C$ , $1+Z-9T^2+11T^3+121T^4$ ? $\endgroup$
    – Pont
    Mar 10, 2023 at 14:57
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    $\begingroup$ The quartic factors over $\Bbb{Q}(\sqrt5)$ as the product of $x^2+\dfrac{1\pm5\sqrt5}2x+11$. $\endgroup$ Mar 10, 2023 at 15:32
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    $\begingroup$ Correct. I was only looking at it as a function field/smooth curve over $\Bbb{F}_{11}$. $\endgroup$ Mar 10, 2023 at 15:33

1 Answer 1

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The job is easily done with computer support, here sage. Let us do this first.

F = GF(11)
R.<x,y,z> = PolynomialRing(F)
C = Curve(y^5 + z^3*(x^2 - x*z))
print(f'C is the curve:\n{C}')

We have initialized:

C is the curve:
Projective Plane Curve over Finite Field of size 11
defined by y^5 + x^2*z^3 - x*z^4

Then in a dialog with the sage interpreter:

sage: C.is_singular()
True
sage: C.singular_points()
[(1 : 0 : 0)]

sage: C.L_polynomial()
121*t^4 + 11*t^3 - 9*t^2 + t + 1

sage: C.rational_points()
[(0 : 0 : 1),
 (1 : 0 : 0),
 (1 : 0 : 1),
 (4 : 2 : 1),
 (4 : 6 : 1),
 (4 : 7 : 1),
 (4 : 8 : 1),
 (4 : 10 : 1),
 (8 : 2 : 1),
 (8 : 6 : 1),
 (8 : 7 : 1),
 (8 : 8 : 1),
 (8 : 10 : 1)]
sage: len(C.rational_points())
13

To see how many points there are after a quadratic extension...

sage: len(C.base_extend(GF(11^2)).rational_points())
103

So the zeta function of $C$ is $$ \begin{aligned} Z(C,T) &=\exp\left(\sum_k\frac 1k\cdot\#C(\Bbb F_{11^k})\cdot T^k\right) \\ &=\frac{L(T)}{(1-T)(1-11T)} \\ &=\frac{1+T-9T^2+11T^3+121T^4}{(1-T)(1-11T)} \ , \end{aligned} $$ and sage gave the above L_polynomial for C, so we can extract the cardinalities $\# C(\Bbb F_{11^k})$ for some first $k$ values:

sage: R.<T> = PowerSeriesRing(QQ)
....: log( C.L_polynomial()(T) / (1 - T) / (1 - 11*T) ) + O(T^8)
13*T + 103/2*T^2 + 1393/3*T^3 + 14883/4*T^4 + 161448/5*T^5 + 1774963/6*T^6 + 19477303/7*T^7 + O(T^8)

So we expect for instance $1393$ points in an extension of degree three of $F$... and indeed, after a long time to compute the enumeration...

sage: len(C.base_extend(GF(11^3)).rational_points())
1393

To do something with bare hands, let us analyze the map $y\to y^5$ on $F=\Bbb F_{11}$ and on $L=\Bbb F_{121}$. Zero is mapped to zero. Else, for $y\ne 0$? We have $y^{10}=1$ on $F$. So $y^5$ is $\pm 1$ for $y\in F$, and each value is taken five times.

The listed points above show that we can realize only $y^5=-1$ (with $y\ne 0$). Observe that if $(x,y)$ satisfies $$ y^5 =x(1-x)\ , $$ then this also holds for $(y,1-x)$. (So if we know the five points $(4,y)$, then we also know the other five point $(1-4,y)=(8,y)$.)

Also, $(x,y)$ point on $C$ immediately gives the points $(x,g^2y)$, $(x,g^4y)$, $(x,g^4y)$, $(x,g^8y)$, where $g$ is a multiplicative generator of $F^\times$. And if $x$ in $F$ or $L$ is a first component of a point, than there are exactly five points of the shape $(x,g^{2k}y)$ having this first component.

sage: F
Finite Field of size 11
sage: g = F.multiplicative_generator()
sage: g
2
sage: [g^(2*k) for k in [0..4]]
[1, 4, 5, 9, 3]

One can also write $x^2-x=x^2-12x=(x-6)^2-36=(x-6)^2-3$. Combining the above arguments, the list of points offered by sage above over $F=\Bbb F_{11}$ can be also easily computed with bare hands.


What above $L$, the field with $121$ elements? We restrict to finding affine $L$-rational points $(x,y)$ which are not defined over $F$. As seen above, it is enough to find the $x$-values having $x(1-x)$ a fifth power.

Again, with the computer:

sage: F = GF(11)
sage: RF.<U> = PolynomialRing(F)
sage: L.<a> = GF(11^2, U^2 + U + 1)
sage: L
Finite Field in a of size 11^2
sage: a.minpoly()
x^2 + x + 1

sage: list(set([x for x in L if (U^5 - x*(1-x)).roots(ring=L)]))
[0,
 1,
 4,
 8,
 a + 1,
 a + 3,
 a + 10,
 2*a + 1,
 2*a + 2,
 4*a + 1,
 4*a + 4,
 5*a + 7,
 5*a + 10,
 6*a + 2,
 6*a + 5,
 7*a,
 7*a + 8,
 9*a,
 9*a + 10,
 10*a,
 10*a + 2,
 10*a + 9]
sage: 

For the first $x$-values $0,1,4,8$ we know the resulting $13$ $F$-rational points. The next $18$ values of $x$ (which are $9$ pairs of values $x, 1-x$) introduce further $18\cdot 5=90$ rational points. This gives a total of $13+90=103$ points.


Is there any chance to proceed in a structural manner? We already know that the $L$-polynomial is of the shape $$ L(T)=1 + T + cT^2 + 11T^3 + 121T^4\ . $$ We have reasons to expect $\# C(\Bbb F_{121})=13 + 2\cdot 5\cdot k$ for some integer $k$. (Using $x\to 1-x$, and $y\to g^{2k}y$.) Also there are bounds for this number: $$ -2\cdot2\cdot\sqrt{121}\le 121+1\le 2\cdot2\cdot\sqrt{121}\ . $$ So only $83$, $93$, $103$, $113$, $123$, $133$, $143$, $153$, $163$ can show up. One can now compute the corresponding $c$-values in the $L$-polynomial, and check if the roots have all the right modulus... (But again, doing so i need a computer.)



Later EDIT: "Same question" for the hyperelliptic curve in next genus, $$ C \ :\qquad y^7 = -x^2 + x\ , $$ over the fiels with $p$ and $p^2$ elements, $p$ being the prime $p=29$.

p = 29
F = GF(p)
F2 = GF(p^2)

R.<x,y,z> = PolynomialRing(F)
RQ.<T> = PowerSeriesRing(QQ)

C = Curve(y^7 + z^5*(x^2 - x*z))

L = C.L_polynomial()
Z = log( L(T) / (1 - T) / (1 - p*T) )

print(f"F is the field:\n{F}\n")
print(f"F2 is the field:\n{F2}\n")
print(f"C is the curve:\n{C}\n")
print(f"The L-Polynomial of C is:\n{L}\n")
print(f"The Z-function of C is:\n{Z}\n")
print(f"Check for the cardinalities C(F) and C(F2):")
print(f"# C(F)  = {len(C.rational_points())}")
print(f"# C(F2) = {len(C.base_extend(F2).rational_points())}")

Results (with manually slightly rearranged output to fit in the MSE band width) after some few minutes:

F is the field:
Finite Field of size 29

F2 is the field:
Finite Field in z2 of size 29^2

C is the curve:
Projective Plane Curve over Finite Field of size 29 
defined by y^7 + x^2*z^5 - x*z^6

The L-Polynomial of C is:
24389*t^6 + 841*t^5 - 783*t^4 - 69*t^3 - 27*t^2 + t + 1

The Z-function of C is:
31*T + 787/2*T^2 + 24265/3*T^3 + 702859/4*T^4 + 20513391/5*T^5 
    + 594795463/6*T^6 + 17249583480/7*T^7 + 500244091539/8*T^8
    + 14507146991683/9*T^9 + 420707233574967/10*T^10 
    + 12200509372167609/11*T^11 + 353814782784565987/12*T^12 
    + 10260628712662461255/13*T^13 + 148779116346777556246/7*T^14
    + 575279249814016300549*T^15 
    + 250246473681188954827203/16*T^16 
    + 7257147736729702375185933/17*T^17
    + 210457284365192863709980951/18*T^18
    + 6103261246589707340158433551/19*T^19 + O(T^20)

Check for the cardinalities C(F) and C(F2):
# C(F)  = 31
# C(F2) = 787

Later EDIT #2: And the same code as above, with the following two lines changed, so that we are working with $C$ with affine equation $y^5 =-x^2+x$ in characteristic $p=31$,

p = 31
C = Curve(y^5 + z^3*(x^2 - x*z))

has the results (also manually changed):

F is the field:
Finite Field of size 31

F2 is the field:
Finite Field in z2 of size 31^2

C is the curve:
Projective Plane Curve over Finite Field of size 31 
defined by y^5 + x^2*z^3 - x*z^4

The L-Polynomial of C is:
961*t^4 + 341*t^3 + 61*t^2 + 11*t + 1

The Z-function of C is:
43*T + 963/2*T^2 + 30133/3*T^3 + 919803/4*T^4 + 28638348/5*T^5 
 + 295837381/2*T^6 + 27512900563/7*T^7 
 + 852887808483/8*T^8 + 26439628483153/9*T^9
 + 409814154294599/5*T^10 + 25408477098836743/11*T^11
 + 262554260396916721/4*T^12 + 24417546300228124333/13*T^13
 + 756943935258853246503/14*T^14 + 7821753997315868117516/5*T^15
 + 727423121745279143223843/16*T^16
 + 22550116774161780528174763/17*T^17
 + 233017873333033411054492561/6*T^18
 + 21670662219970398858049959853/19*T^19 + O(T^20)

Check for the cardinalities C(F) and C(F2):
# C(F)  = 43
# C(F2) = 963

Later EDIT #3: As asked in the comments, let $C$ be the curve with affine equation $y^5 =-x^2+x$, we cover all characteristics $p$ up to $p=41$, plot in each case the $L$-polynomial $L_p(T)$, and the first terms in the congruent / congruence zeta function $Z_p(T)=Z(C/\Bbb F_p, T)$ modulo $O(T^6)$. The included information in the following mathjax / latex aligned block was produced by sage, the code is postponed: $$ \begin{aligned} L_{2}(T) &= 1 + 4 T^{4}\\ \log Z_{2}(T) &= 3 T + \frac{5}{2} T^{2} + 3 T^{3} + \frac{33}{4} T^{4} + \frac{33}{5} T^{5} + O(T^{6})\\[2mm] L_{3}(T) &= 1 + 9 T^{4}\\ \log Z_{3}(T) &= 4 T + 5 T^{2} + \frac{28}{3} T^{3} + \frac{59}{2} T^{4} + \frac{244}{5} T^{5} + O(T^{6})\\[2mm] L_{5}(T) &= 1\\ \log Z_{5}(T) &= 6 T + 13 T^{2} + 42 T^{3} + \frac{313}{2} T^{4} + \frac{3126}{5} T^{5} + O(T^{6})\\[2mm] L_{7}(T) &= 1 + 49 T^{4}\\ \log Z_{7}(T) &= 8 T + 25 T^{2} + \frac{344}{3} T^{3} + \frac{1299}{2} T^{4} + \frac{16808}{5} T^{5} + O(T^{6})\\[2mm] L_{11}(T) &= 1 + T - 9 T^{2} + 11 T^{3} + 121 T^{4}\\ \log Z_{11}(T) &= 13 T + \frac{103}{2} T^{2} + \frac{1393}{3} T^{3} + \frac{14883}{4} T^{4} + \frac{161448}{5} T^{5} + O(T^{6})\\[2mm] L_{13}(T) &= 1 + 169 T^{4}\\ \log Z_{13}(T) &= 14 T + 85 T^{2} + \frac{2198}{3} T^{3} + \frac{14619}{2} T^{4} + \frac{371294}{5} T^{5} + O(T^{6})\\[2mm] L_{17}(T) &= 1 + 289 T^{4}\\ \log Z_{17}(T) &= 18 T + 145 T^{2} + 1638 T^{3} + \frac{42339}{2} T^{4} + \frac{1419858}{5} T^{5} + O(T^{6})\\[2mm] L_{19}(T) &= 1 + 38 T^{2} + 361 T^{4}\\ \log Z_{19}(T) &= 20 T + 219 T^{2} + \frac{6860}{3} T^{3} + \frac{64439}{2} T^{4} + 495220 T^{5} + O(T^{6})\\[2mm] L_{23}(T) &= 1 + 529 T^{4}\\ \log Z_{23}(T) &= 24 T + 265 T^{2} + 4056 T^{3} + \frac{140979}{2} T^{4} + \frac{6436344}{5} T^{5} + O(T^{6})\\[2mm] L_{29}(T) &= 1 + 58 T^{2} + 841 T^{4}\\ \log Z_{29}(T) &= 30 T + 479 T^{2} + 8130 T^{3} + \frac{351959}{2} T^{4} + 4102230 T^{5} + O(T^{6})\\[2mm] L_{31}(T) &= 1 + 11 T + 61 T^{2} + 341 T^{3} + 961 T^{4}\\ \log Z_{31}(T) &= 43 T + \frac{963}{2} T^{2} + \frac{30133}{3} T^{3} + \frac{919803}{4} T^{4} + \frac{28638348}{5} T^{5} + O(T^{6})\\[2mm] L_{37}(T) &= 1 + 1369 T^{4}\\ \log Z_{37}(T) &= 38 T + 685 T^{2} + \frac{50654}{3} T^{3} + \frac{939819}{2} T^{4} + \frac{69343958}{5} T^{5} + O(T^{6})\\[2mm] L_{41}(T) &= 1 - 9 T + 71 T^{2} - 369 T^{3} + 1681 T^{4}\\ \log Z_{41}(T) &= 33 T + \frac{1743}{2} T^{2} + 23001 T^{3} + \frac{2825563}{4} T^{4} + \frac{115886298}{5} T^{5} + O(T^{6})\\[2mm] \end{aligned} $$ Used code:

RT.<T> = PowerSeriesRing(QQ, default_prec=6)
for p in primes(42):
    R.<x,y,z> = PolynomialRing(GF(p))
    C = Curve(y^5 + z^3*(x^2 - x*z))    # automatically over GF(p)
    L = C.L_polynomial()
    Z = L(T) / (1 - T) / (1 - p*T)
    print(f"L_{{{p}}}(T) &= {latex(L(T))}\\\\")
    print(f"\\log Z_{{{p}}}(T) &= {latex(log(Z))}\\\\[2mm]")

Later EDIT #4: As asked in the comments, let us also cover experimentally the curve $C$ with affine equation $y^2 =(x^2+1)(x^4 - 8x^3 + 2x^2 +8x + 1)$ for some small characteristics. Same code, only the curve is changed. We have a singular curve, so that we do not expect to see an $L$-polynomial of degree equal to doubled genus. $$ \begin{aligned} p &= 3\text{ , genus = 0, singular}\\ L_{3}(t) &= 1 - t + t^{2} - t^{3} = \left(-1\right) \cdot (-1 + t) \cdot (1 + t^{2})\\ \log Z_{3}(T) &= 3 T + \frac{11}{2} T^{2} + 9 T^{3} + \frac{79}{4} T^{4} + \frac{243}{5} T^{5} + O(T^{6})\\[2mm] p &= 5\text{ , genus = 2, singular}\\ L_{5}(t) &= 1 - t - 6 t^{2} + 6 t^{3} + 25 t^{4} - 25 t^{5} = \left(-1\right) \cdot (-1 + t) \cdot (1 - 4 t + 5 t^{2}) \cdot (1 + 4 t + 5 t^{2})\\ \log Z_{5}(T) &= 5 T + \frac{13}{2} T^{2} + \frac{125}{3} T^{3} + \frac{653}{4} T^{4} + 625 T^{5} + O(T^{6})\\[2mm] p &= 7\text{ , genus = 2, singular}\\ L_{7}(t) &= 1 + 7 t + 22 t^{2} + 26 t^{3} - 7 t^{4} - 49 t^{5} = \left(-1\right) \cdot (-1 + t) \cdot (1 + 4 t + 7 t^{2})^{2}\\ \log Z_{7}(T) &= 15 T + \frac{45}{2} T^{2} + 101 T^{3} + \frac{2589}{4} T^{4} + 3267 T^{5} + O(T^{6})\\[2mm] p &= 11\text{ , genus = 2, singular}\\ L_{11}(t) &= 1 - t - 6 t^{2} + 6 t^{3} + 121 t^{4} - 121 t^{5} = \left(-1\right) \cdot (-1 + t) \cdot (1 - 6 t^{2} + 121 t^{4})\\ \log Z_{11}(T) &= 11 T + \frac{109}{2} T^{2} + \frac{1331}{3} T^{3} + \frac{15053}{4} T^{4} + \frac{161051}{5} T^{5} + O(T^{6})\\[2mm] p &= 13\text{ , genus = 2, singular}\\ L_{13}(t) &= 1 - t - 22 t^{2} + 22 t^{3} + 169 t^{4} - 169 t^{5} = \left(-1\right) \cdot (-1 + t) \cdot (1 - 22 t^{2} + 169 t^{4})\\ \log Z_{13}(T) &= 13 T + \frac{125}{2} T^{2} + \frac{2197}{3} T^{3} + \frac{28269}{4} T^{4} + \frac{371293}{5} T^{5} + O(T^{6})\\[2mm] p &= 17\text{ , genus = 2, singular}\\ L_{17}(t) &= 1 + 11 t + 58 t^{2} + 134 t^{3} + 85 t^{4} - 289 t^{5} = \left(-1\right) \cdot (-1 + t) \cdot (1 + 6 t + 17 t^{2})^{2}\\ \log Z_{17}(T) &= 29 T + \frac{285}{2} T^{2} + \frac{4733}{3} T^{3} + \frac{84669}{4} T^{4} + \frac{1416029}{5} T^{5} + O(T^{6})\\[2mm] p &= 19\text{ , genus = 2, singular}\\ L_{19}(t) &= 1 - t - 22 t^{2} + 22 t^{3} + 361 t^{4} - 361 t^{5} = \left(-1\right) \cdot (-1 + t) \cdot (1 - 22 t^{2} + 361 t^{4})\\ \log Z_{19}(T) &= 19 T + \frac{317}{2} T^{2} + \frac{6859}{3} T^{3} + \frac{130797}{4} T^{4} + \frac{2476099}{5} T^{5} + O(T^{6})\\[2mm] p &= 23\text{ , genus = 2, singular}\\ L_{23}(t) &= 1 - t + 46 t^{2} - 46 t^{3} + 529 t^{4} - 529 t^{5} = \left(-1\right) \cdot (-1 + t) \cdot (1 + 23 t^{2})^{2}\\ \log Z_{23}(T) &= 23 T + \frac{621}{2} T^{2} + \frac{12167}{3} T^{3} + \frac{277725}{4} T^{4} + \frac{6436343}{5} T^{5} + O(T^{6})\\[2mm] p &= 29\text{ , genus = 2, singular}\\ L_{29}(t) &= 1 - t - 54 t^{2} + 54 t^{3} + 841 t^{4} - 841 t^{5} = \left(-1\right) \cdot (-1 + t) \cdot (1 - 54 t^{2} + 841 t^{4})\\ \log Z_{29}(T) &= 29 T + \frac{733}{2} T^{2} + \frac{24389}{3} T^{3} + \frac{704813}{4} T^{4} + \frac{20511149}{5} T^{5} + O(T^{6})\\[2mm] p &= 31\text{ , genus = 2, singular}\\ L_{31}(t) &= 1 + 7 t + 70 t^{2} + 170 t^{3} + 713 t^{4} - 961 t^{5} = \left(-1\right) \cdot (-1 + t) \cdot (1 + 4 t + 31 t^{2})^{2}\\ \log Z_{31}(T) &= 39 T + \frac{1053}{2} T^{2} + 9725 T^{3} + \frac{923133}{4} T^{4} + \frac{28649799}{5} T^{5} + O(T^{6})\\[2mm] p &= 37\text{ , genus = 2, singular}\\ L_{37}(t) &= 1 - t - 70 t^{2} + 70 t^{3} + 1369 t^{4} - 1369 t^{5} = \left(-1\right) \cdot (-1 + t) \cdot (1 - 12 t + 37 t^{2}) \cdot (1 + 12 t + 37 t^{2})\\ \log Z_{37}(T) &= 37 T + \frac{1229}{2} T^{2} + \frac{50653}{3} T^{3} + \frac{1869837}{4} T^{4} + \frac{69343957}{5} T^{5} + O(T^{6})\\[2mm] p &= 41\text{ , genus = 2, singular}\\ L_{41}(t) &= 1 + 3 t + 82 t^{2} + 78 t^{3} + 1517 t^{4} - 1681 t^{5} = \left(-1\right) \cdot (-1 + t) \cdot (1 + 2 t + 41 t^{2})^{2}\\ \log Z_{41}(T) &= 45 T + \frac{1837}{2} T^{2} + 22815 T^{3} + \frac{2820317}{4} T^{4} + 23177321 T^{5} + O(T^{6})\\[2mm] p &= 43\text{ , genus = 2, singular}\\ L_{43}(t) &= 1 - t - 70 t^{2} + 70 t^{3} + 1849 t^{4} - 1849 t^{5} = \left(-1\right) \cdot (-1 + t) \cdot (1 - 70 t^{2} + 1849 t^{4})\\ \log Z_{43}(T) &= 43 T + \frac{1709}{2} T^{2} + \frac{79507}{3} T^{3} + \frac{3416397}{4} T^{4} + \frac{147008443}{5} T^{5} + O(T^{6})\\[2mm] p &= 47\text{ , genus = 2, singular}\\ L_{47}(t) &= 1 + 15 t + 142 t^{2} + 594 t^{3} + 1457 t^{4} - 2209 t^{5} = \left(-1\right) \cdot (-1 + t) \cdot (1 + 8 t + 47 t^{2})^{2}\\ \log Z_{47}(T) &= 63 T + \frac{2269}{2} T^{2} + 34197 T^{3} + \frac{4886717}{4} T^{4} + \frac{229346623}{5} T^{5} + O(T^{6})\\[2mm] p &= 53\text{ , genus = 2, singular}\\ L_{53}(t) &= 1 - t - 6 t^{2} + 6 t^{3} + 2809 t^{4} - 2809 t^{5} = \left(-1\right) \cdot (-1 + t) \cdot (1 - 6 t^{2} + 2809 t^{4})\\ \log Z_{53}(T) &= 53 T + \frac{2797}{2} T^{2} + \frac{148877}{3} T^{3} + \frac{7901645}{4} T^{4} + \frac{418195493}{5} T^{5} + O(T^{6})\\[2mm] p &= 59\text{ , genus = 2, singular}\\ L_{59}(t) &= 1 - t - 102 t^{2} + 102 t^{3} + 3481 t^{4} - 3481 t^{5} = \left(-1\right) \cdot (-1 + t) \cdot (1 - 102 t^{2} + 3481 t^{4})\\ \log Z_{59}(T) &= 59 T + \frac{3277}{2} T^{2} + \frac{205379}{3} T^{3} + \frac{12110477}{4} T^{4} + \frac{714924299}{5} T^{5} + O(T^{6})\\[2mm] p &= 61\text{ , genus = 2, singular}\\ L_{61}(t) &= 1 - t - 86 t^{2} + 86 t^{3} + 3721 t^{4} - 3721 t^{5} = \left(-1\right) \cdot (-1 + t) \cdot (1 - 86 t^{2} + 3721 t^{4})\\ \log Z_{61}(T) &= 61 T + \frac{3549}{2} T^{2} + \frac{226981}{3} T^{3} + \frac{13845933}{4} T^{4} + \frac{844596301}{5} T^{5} + O(T^{6})\\[2mm] p &= 67\text{ , genus = 2, singular}\\ L_{67}(t) &= 1 - t - 118 t^{2} + 118 t^{3} + 4489 t^{4} - 4489 t^{5} = \left(-1\right) \cdot (-1 + t) \cdot (1 - 118 t^{2} + 4489 t^{4})\\ \log Z_{67}(T) &= 67 T + \frac{4253}{2} T^{2} + \frac{300763}{3} T^{3} + \frac{20141229}{4} T^{4} + \frac{1350125107}{5} T^{5} + O(T^{6})\\[2mm] \end{aligned} $$

PSR.<T> = PowerSeriesRing(QQ, default_prec=6)
RQ.<t,u> = PolynomialRing(QQ, order='neglex')
for p in primes(3, 70):
    R.<x,y> = PolynomialRing(GF(p))
    Ca = Curve( -y^2 + (x^2 + 1)*(x^4 - 8*x^3 + 2*x^2 + 8*x + 1) )
    C = Ca.projective_closure()    # Ca is affine, C projective.
    L = C.L_polynomial()
    Z = L(T) / (1 - T) / (1 - p*T)
    print(f"p &= {p}\\text{{ , genus = {C.genus()}{', singular' if C.is_singular() else ''}}}\\\\")
    print(f"L_{{{p}}}(t) &= {latex(L(t))} = {latex(L(t).factor())}\\\\")
    print(f"\\log Z_{{{p}}}(T) &= {latex(log(Z))}\\\\[2mm]")
$\endgroup$
21
  • $\begingroup$ Thank you so much for your detailed answer. I'm not familiar with Sage, but noticed it very useful thanks to your answer. For the case $C: y^7=-x^2+x$, what is $\sharp C(\Bbb{F}_{29})$ and $\sharp C(\Bbb{F}_{{29}^2})$ and if possible, what is congruent zeta function of $Z(C/\Bbb{F}_{29}, T)$ ? $\endgroup$
    – Pont
    Mar 12, 2023 at 12:19
  • $\begingroup$ If I could install sage, it's better. But I tried to use 'Sage cell server' , but it does not work well with your code(This is because I'm very bad at using this kind of computer machine). $\endgroup$
    – Pont
    Mar 12, 2023 at 12:23
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ I will edit the answer, add the wanted information on the hyperelliptic curve $y^7 = -x^2 +x$ over powers of the prime $29$. $\endgroup$
    – dan_fulea
    Mar 12, 2023 at 12:31
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ If there are still open question, do not hesitate to ask, we can move the whole discussion to a chat. $\endgroup$
    – dan_fulea
    Mar 12, 2023 at 15:20
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ I've added some more experimental data... You are too generous! It is natural for me to share what i know, hope that everybody can see how simple is to use computer aids to complement the dry or the fascinating theoretical play on the computational part with experimental data confirming (or not) the theory and/or the own conjectures... $\endgroup$
    – dan_fulea
    Mar 15, 2023 at 18:06

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