# Find a polynomial which has the full symmetric group $S_m$ as Galois group

Let $f \in K[X]$ a polynomial of degree $m$ and let $\theta_1, \ldots, \theta_n$ it's roots (in an algebraic closure $\overline{K}$ of $K$), let $N := K(\theta_1, \ldots, \theta_m)$ be the splitting field of $f$ over $K$ and let $$R := \{ r(X_1, \ldots, X_m) \in K[X_1, \ldots, X_m] : r(\theta_1, \ldots, \theta_m) = 0 \}$$ the set of $K$-rational relations between $\theta_1, \ldots, \theta_2$, then $$\operatorname{Gal}(f) := \{ \sigma \in S_m : r(\theta_{\sigma(1)}, \ldots, \theta_{\sigma(m)}) = 0, r(X_1, \ldots, X_m) \in R \}$$ a subgroup of the symmetric group $S_m$, which is called the Galois group of $f$.

Intuitively, the Galois group consists of those permutations that respect all algebraic relations. So if there are no relations (i.e. $R = \emptyset$) then the Galois group is the full symmetric group (i.e. $Gal(f) = S_m$).

Now my question, how can I construct a polynomial such that no relations between the root hold, for example $x^3 - 2$ is such, but how to construct it in general? That his how to find a polynomial such that it's Galoisgroup is $S_m$?

• Is $K$ given, or can we choose $K$ to make the question easy? – Mark Bennet Jul 25 '13 at 21:13
• If $m$ is prime, the Galois group of an irreducible polynomial is transitive and therefore contains a cycle of order $m$ which is necessarily an $m$-cycle (e.g. (123..m)). If the polynomial has a complex root, then complex conjugation acts nontrivially giving a 2-cycle. Then as any 2-cycle and any $m$-cycle must generate all of $S_m$, the Galois group is $S_m$. – RghtHndSd Jul 25 '13 at 21:17
• @rghthndsd You seem to be assuming we are looking at polynomials over $K= \mathbb Q$ - but it is not clear we have characteristic $0$. If $K=\mathbb R$ we can get only $S_2$ and if $K=\mathbb C$ we don't even get that. – Mark Bennet Jul 25 '13 at 21:54
• I just had $\mathbb Q$ in mind, but for general $K$ might be more interesting. – StefanH Jul 25 '13 at 22:23

There is a construction of a polynomial with $S_n$ in: