In Kreyzig's Functional Analysis with Applications, the dimension of a finite-dimensional vector space is defined to be $\dim(X) = n$ if there exists a linearly independent set of $n$ vectors in $X$ and no set of $n+1$ vectors is L.I.
I'm trying to prove that for all $n$ the following are equivalent, so that dimension becomes a well-defined value:
- $\dim(X) = n$.
- $X$ has a Hamel basis (an L.I. spanning set), and every L.I. set of $n$ vectors in $X$ is a basis.
- There exists a spanning set of $n$ vectors, and no set of $n-1$ vectors spans $X$.
So far I've got (1) and (2) are equivalent because I've shown every maximal L.I. set is a basis, and I've also got that (3) implies a basis exists (because minimal spanning sets are such), but I'm having trouble showing (2) implies (3) and finishing proving (3) implies (2).
Separately I also have that the representation of a vector $x$ as a linear combination of the basis vectors is unique (but I'm not sure if that's useful here).
How should I proceed from here?