# Mathematical Notation after braces

I was searching for an equation to calculate the arc length of the archimedean spiral and found the following notation:

$$\frac{b}{2}[\theta\sqrt{1+\theta^2}+ln(\theta+\sqrt{1+\theta^2})]^{\theta_2}_{\theta_1}$$

which, by the context, I know it denotes an operation starting in $$\theta_1$$ and ending in $$\theta_2$$.

My question is: What does this subscript and superscript mean after the braces? How do I know what to do when I read a notation like this one.

$$[f(t)]_{t_0}^{t_1} = f(t_1) - f(t_0),$$ though you usually need to deduce from the context what the variable is, it won’t always be $$t$$. (It’s $$\theta$$ in your case.)
Sometimes you will also see $$[f(t)]_{t=t_0}^{t_1}$$ instead, which explicitly specifies the variable. Another common way of denoting the same thing is $$f(t) \Big|_{t_0}^{t_1},$$ again, sometimes with “$$t = t_0$$” in the subscript to disambiguate the variable.
Simply put, $$[f(x)]_{x_1}^{x_2}=(f(x_2)-f(x_1))$$.
This notation comes from calculating a definite integral. Indeed, $$\int_0^1 x\mathrm{d}x=\left[\frac{x^{2}}{2}\right]_0^{1}=\frac{1}{2}-0=\frac{1}{2}.$$