Here is the question as given that I am having trouble with:
Let $F$ be a field and $p(x)$ an irreducible polynomial in $F[x]$. In this investigation we showed that $E=F[x]/\langle p(x)\rangle$ is a field, and we implied that $F$ is a subfield of $E$. Now we will examine what we mean by that statement.
(a) There is a natural mapping $\iota$ from $F$ to $E$. Identify this mapping ($\iota$ is called the inclusion mapping). Show that $\iota$ preserves the structure of $F$. Is $\iota$ an isomorphism? Explain.
(b) Explain how $E$ contains an isomorphic copy of $F$. (It is in this sense that we say $F$ is a subfield of $E$. This subfield of $E$ this is isomorphic to $F$ is called an embedding of $F$ in $E$.)
Keep in mind that I am really new to all of this so I am trying my best to make sense of a ton of new information. I think I understand the idea of quotients with polynomial rings and why $E=F[x]/\langle p(x)\rangle$ is a field, but I am unclear what part (a) is looking for in terms of the mapping. We have also talked about an isomorphism being a well-defined bijective function that preserves addition and multiplication. Is this what I would be checking to show that the mapping is an isomorphism then? For part (b), I'm not sure why exactly $E$ would contain an isomorphic copy of $F$.