It occurred to me that there must be a lot of numbers without any form of finite representation on paper. Is there a name for these numbers?
Integers and rationals have a very simple representation e.g. 3/4
Irrational numbers obviously can also have a finite representation: 1.41421356... can be written as "the solution to the equation x^2 = 2"
Transcendental numbers can also have a finite representation: e can be written as "the limit of (1 + 1/n)^n as n approaches infinity"
In other words, with a finite amount of effort one can give the reader enough information to calculate the value of the specified number exactly (to any degree of accuracy the reader chooses)
However, there must be a lot of numbers where this simply is not possible.
Consider the number 1.2736358762987349862379358... where this is just a string of (genuinely) random digits. There is no way to provide a finite definition that will specify this number to an arbitrary degree of accuracy. Similarly, there is no equation to which this number is a solution (I think, although I don't know how one would prove this).
Does this mean there are "gaps" in the real numbers. The number above is definitely somewhere between 1.2 and 1.3 but there is no way I can specify the value of this number (without writing an infinite number of digits). The number exists on the number line but I will never be able to do anything with it.
Is there a name for these numbers? Can anyone point me to some interesting resources on this topic?
I'm only asking as an interested hobbyist so apologies if this question isn't very scientific.