Given a (pointed or unpointed) monoid $M$, one defines an ideal of $M$ to be a subset $I$ of $M$ such that if $a\in I$ and $r\in M$, then $ra\in I$ (and such that $0\in I$ if $M$ is pointed). A prime ideal $\frak p$ of $M$ is then an ideal such that if $ab\in\frak p$, then $a\in\frak p$ or $b\in\frak p$. The set of all prime ideals of $M$ can is written $\mathrm{MSpec}(M)$, and it can be made into a topological space equipped with a sheaf of monoids, giving a variant of algebraic geometry where monoids play the role of rings. Good references for this are Sections 1--2 of this paper and Ogus's book.

Lately I've been trying to compile some examples of such prime spectra, and wondering about how these relate to the usual $\mathrm{Spec}$ of a ring. So far, I've found or read about the following examples (the first five examples below come from Martin Brandenburg's answer here):

  • $\mathrm{MSpec}(\mathbf{N},+)=\{0,\mathbf{N}_{>0}\}$.
  • $\mathrm{MSpec}(\mathbf{Z},+)=\{0\}$.
  • $\mathrm{MSpec}(\mathbf{N},\cdot)=\mathrm{MSpec}(\mathbf{Z},\cdot)=\mathcal{P}(\mathbf{P})$, the powerset of the set $\mathbf{P}$ of all prime numbers.
  • $\mathrm{MSpec}(\mathbf{N}\otimes_{\mathbf{N}_+}\mathbf{N})\cong\mathcal{P}(\mathbf{P}\times\mathbf{P})$.
  • $\mathrm{MSpec}(\mathbf{Z}\otimes_{\mathbf{F}_1}\mathbf{Z})\cong\mathcal{P}(\mathbf{P})\times\mathcal{P}(\mathbf{P})$.
  • $\mathrm{MSpec}(K)=\{(0)\}$ whenever $K^\times=K\setminus\{0\}$. In particular this applies to $\mathbf{F}_1=\{0,1\}$.
  • $\mathrm{MSpec}(\mathbf{F}_1[x])=\{(0),(x)\}$.
  • $\mathrm{MSpec}(\mathbf{F}_1[x,y])=\{(0),(x),(y),(x,y)\}$.
  • $\mathrm{MSpec}(\mathbf{F}_1[x_1,...,x_n])=\mathcal{P}(\{x_1,...x_n\})$.
  • $\mathrm{MSpec}(\mathbf{F}_1[t,t^{-1}])=\{(0),(t),(t^{-1})\}$.

Now, any ring $R$ has an associated monoid, given by keeping only multiplication. I've noticed that there seems to be some relation between $\mathrm{Spec}(R)$ and $\mathrm{MSpec}(R)$ when applicable in the above examples; e.g. $\mathrm{Spec}(\mathbf{Z})=\{(0)\}\cup\mathbf{P}$ naturally injects into $\mathrm{MSpec}(\mathbf{Z},\cdot)=\mathcal{P}(\mathbf{P})$, at least as a set.

Are there any results relating the monoidal spaces $\mathrm{Spec}(R)$ and $\mathrm{MSpec}(R)$?

Are there for $\mathrm{MSpec}(M)$ and $\mathrm{Spec}(\mathbf{N}[M])$ or $\mathrm{Spec}(\mathbf{N}_+[M])$?

Finally, do we always have a natural morphism of monoidal spaces $\mathrm{Spec}(R)\to\mathrm{MSpec}(R)$?

  • $\begingroup$ I had forgotten to add a pointer to Martin Brandenburg's answer in the list of examples above. My apologies. $\endgroup$
    – Emily
    Commented Aug 25, 2021 at 11:54
  • $\begingroup$ Note: this question shares part of its body with Examples of prime spectra of monoids, which asks about more examples of $\mathrm{MSpec}$'s. $\endgroup$
    – Emily
    Commented Aug 25, 2021 at 13:27
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ I think the map in your last question is kind of immediate, no? Every prime of a ring is a prime of its multiplication monoid, this map is continuous. For the map of sheaves, every section is locally a quotient of elements of the ring in both sides so we can think of the map as "identity" $\endgroup$
    – sss89
    Commented Aug 31, 2021 at 7:53
  • $\begingroup$ @sss89 Sorry for the delay in replying. I had this map in mind, but wanted to confirm that it works with someone else. Thanks! $\endgroup$
    – Emily
    Commented Sep 3, 2021 at 8:46


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