Does anyone know of a closed-form formula for the sum $\sum_{n = 1}^\infty x^{2^n-1}$? We can assume that $0<x<1$.


  • $\begingroup$ possible duplicate of Evaluating the sum of geometric series $\endgroup$
    – Amr
    Jun 12, 2013 at 20:02
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    $\begingroup$ @Amr, no, this is not a duplicate of that. This has $x^{2^n}$, not $x^n$ like a geometric series. $\endgroup$ Jun 12, 2013 at 20:03
  • $\begingroup$ I think I saw a question extremely similar to this on this site (the exponent was $2^n$ instead of $2^n - 1$). The general consensus was that it is unlikely there is a closed form. $\endgroup$ Jun 12, 2013 at 20:04
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    $\begingroup$ This question is very similar to: Power Series Formula. However, this question should NOT be closed because it asks for an infinite sum, whereas the other one requests a partial sum. $\endgroup$ Jun 12, 2013 at 20:10
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    $\begingroup$ This is known as a lacunary function. I do not know much about them, but I understand they can exhibit very complicated behavior, so I would not expect a simple formula to be possible. $\endgroup$ Jun 13, 2013 at 16:47

1 Answer 1


Further discussion of this topic is available here (except that topic refers to partial sums). However, I did give an estimate in this answer, which gives:

$$ -\frac{\mathrm{Ei}\left(\log (x)\right)}{x\log (2)} \le \sum_{i=0}^\infty x^{2^i - 1} \le -\frac{\mathrm{Ei}\left(\frac{\log (x)}{2}\right)}{x\log (2)} $$

Where $\mathrm{Ei}(x)$ is the Exponential Integral.

  • $\begingroup$ Hmm... Seems like there's no hope :) Approximations are good, but not for what I want to do. Appreciate the comment though! $\endgroup$
    – Spark
    Jun 13, 2013 at 8:42

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