The answer is "yes", and in fact algebraic topology has a lot of combinatorial content. You can find this nowadays with the notion of simplicial sets (and other higher powered tools), but the idea is very old.
In fact, in ye olden days, algebraic topology was called combinatorial topology, with good reason. My personal favorite book on this topic is Henle's A Combinatorial Introduction to Topology. This book proves Brouwer's Fixed Point Theorem, the Jordan Curve Theorem, The Classification Theorem for Compact Surfaces, and many more using combinatorial techniques.
The connection goes both ways, though, and just like we can use combinatorics to solve topological problems, we can use topology to solve combinatorial problems. This observation gives us the field of topological combinatorics, and a great reference for this is Matoušek's Using the Borsuk-Ulam Theorem.
I hope this helps ^_^