# Quotient, Tensor Quasicoherent Sheaves on Affine Open Subsets

Quotient and tensor sheaves are defined by sheafification which is somehow implicit. Is there any easy way to handle these constructions?

Could we ignore the sheafification when we are working in affine open subsets?

For example, let $$X$$ be a scheme and $$\mathcal F$$ and $$\mathcal G$$ be quasicoherent sheaves. Let $$U\subseteq X$$ be an affine open. Is it true that $$(\mathcal F/\mathcal G)(U) = \mathcal F(U)/\mathcal G(U)$$ and $$\mathcal F\otimes_{\mathcal O_X}\mathcal G(U) = \mathcal F(U)\otimes_{\mathcal O_X(U)}\mathcal G(U)$$?

How about other constructions involving sheafification? (for example, image, cokernel, ann, nil and so on)

• Great question about something that I still find confusing to this day. Commented Dec 11, 2020 at 19:02
• I tend to just pretend it is what I hope it is, and then pray I can work locally on the stalks where it is what I hope it is. Commented Dec 11, 2020 at 19:06
• That is a general phenomenon that : constructions involving quasicoherent sheaves that involve sheafification for general sheaves don’t require sheafification when considered on the distinguished affine base. This lies in the fact that many operation commute with localization, therefore the presheaf is already a sheaf on the distinguished open base. Commented Jan 30, 2023 at 2:37

The key statement to verify is whether the thing you're looking at commutes with localization. If it does, then it commutes with sections on affine opens: start by defining the presheaf which takes the naive value on every open set, and then note that on principal affine opens $$D(f)$$ you get exactly the value you would expect from the quasi-coherent sheaf associated to the operation on the module of global sections. As the principal affine opens form a basis for the topology on an affine scheme and a sheaf can be specified by its values on a basis, the result follows.
Let me just mention one alternate neat proof that tensor products commute with sheafification, which I originally saw at the Stacks Project: consider the morphism of ringed spaces $$\pi:(\operatorname{Spec} R,\mathcal{O}_{\operatorname{Spec} R})\to (\{pt\},R)$$. Then the associated sheaf functor is $$\pi^*$$, which means it commutes with tensor products by the standard proof.
• Well, take quotients for example: if $R$ is a ring, $S\subset R$ is a multiplicative subset, and $A$ is an $R$-submodule of an $R$-module $B$, then $S^{-1}(B/A)\cong (S^{-1}B)/(S^{-1}A)$ naturally. "Commutes with localization" means the localization of whatever thing you're doing is the same as doing whatever you're doing to the localization. Secondly, if $\mathcal{F}$ is a quasicoherent sheaf on an affine scheme $X$, then $\mathcal{F}(D(f))=\mathcal{F}(X)_f$, then one applies the fact that you're doing something that commutes with localization. Commented Dec 13, 2020 at 5:19
• Say $U=\operatorname{Spec} A$. Then $\mathcal{F}(U)_f/\mathcal{G}(U)_f=(\mathcal{F}(U)/\mathcal{G}(U))_f$, which is exactly the value on $D(f)$ of the sheaf associated to the $A$-module $\mathcal{F}(U)/\mathcal{G}(U)$. Commented Dec 13, 2020 at 6:21
• Take the sheaf on $U$ associated to that $A$-module $\mathcal{F}(U)/\mathcal{G}(U)$. The sections of this on $U$ are $\mathcal{F}(U)/\mathcal{G}(U)$, and the sections on $D(f)$ are $[\mathcal{F}(U)/\mathcal{G}(U)]_f$, which is exactly the sections of the quotient presheaf $\mathcal{F}/\mathcal{G}$. As principal affine opens form a basis and this specifies a sheaf on that basis, we're done. Commented Dec 13, 2020 at 20:32
• Ohhhh! I think I got your idea. Do you mean the following statement? Let $\mathcal F$ be a sheaf and $\mathcal G$ be a presheaf and $\mathcal B$ be a topological basis of $X$. If $\mathcal F(U) = \mathcal G(U)$ for all $U\in \mathcal B$, then $\mathcal F = \mathcal G^\dagger$. Commented Dec 14, 2020 at 4:39