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Let $W$ be the subspace of $\mathbb R^3$ spanned by $(1,2,3)^T$ and $(1,1,1)^T$. Find the point in $W$ which lies closest to $(-4,1,2)^T$

I know that the least squares solution is $(A^T)A = (A^T)b$.

However I do not know how to set up my matrix of $A$.

The solution to the problem is : the point closest to $b$ which lies in $\mathrm{Ran}(A)$ is $Ax = (-10/3, -1/3, 8/3)$.

How is this solved?

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Let $$ \mathbf{u}=\left[\begin{array}{c} 1\\ 2\\ 3 \end{array}\right] $$ and $$ \mathbf{v}=\left[\begin{array}{c} 1\\ 1\\ 1 \end{array}\right]. $$ We are trying to find $c$ and $d$ such that $c\mathbf{u}+d\mathbf{v}$ is closest (2-norm) to $$ \mathbf{w}=\left[\begin{array}{c} -4\\ 1\\ 2 \end{array}\right]. $$ That is, $$ \min_{c,d}\left\Vert \left[\begin{array}{cc} \mathbf{u} & \mathbf{v}\end{array}\right]\left[\begin{array}{c} c\\ d \end{array}\right]-\left[\mathbf{w}\right]\right\Vert=\min_{c,d}\left\Vert \left[\begin{array}{cc} 1 & 1\\ 2 & 1\\ 3 & 1 \end{array}\right]\left[\begin{array}{c} c\\ d \end{array}\right]-\left[\begin{array}{c} -4\\ 1\\ 2 \end{array}\right]\right\Vert. $$ As it turns out, this has the analytical solution (normal equations) $$ \left[\begin{array}{cc} 1 & 1\\ 2 & 1\\ 3 & 1 \end{array}\right]^{T}\left[\begin{array}{cc} 1 & 1\\ 2 & 1\\ 3 & 1 \end{array}\right]\left[\begin{array}{c} c\\ d \end{array}\right]=\left[\begin{array}{cc} 1 & 1\\ 2 & 1\\ 3 & 1 \end{array}\right]^{T}\left[\begin{array}{c} -4\\ 1\\ 2 \end{array}\right]. $$

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