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Given a positive integer N, how do we compute $card(A)$ where $A = \{x\in\mathbb{Z}, 0 < x < N \mid x^{2}\equiv1\pmod N\}$, when the prime factorization of N is known.
In other words, how many square roots of 1 modulo N exist?
We know that when N is prime, there are only two square roots -> 1 and -1 (except for N = 2, where 1 and -1 coincide).
So what what the equation for generic N looks like? A formal proof would be appreciated.
I don't need to find these roots (this task can be accomplished by using EEA on every pair of factors of N), I need only to compute their amount.

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  • $\begingroup$ Welcome to Mathematics Stack Exchange. For $2^n$ with $n\ge3$, it's $4$. Generally, it depends how many factors $N$ has $\endgroup$ Jul 2 '20 at 18:29
  • $\begingroup$ Maybe define $A=\{x \in \{1,2, \cdots, N-1\} : x^2\equiv 1 (mod \ N)\}$ because if $x\in \mathbb{Z}$, then there are infinitely many such $x$, of the form $Nk\pm 1$, where $k\in \mathbb{Z}$ in which case, maybe you would be interested in the natural density of the set of such $x$. $\endgroup$ Jul 2 '20 at 18:33
  • $\begingroup$ @Fawkes4494d3 later in the question OP says they want distinct square roots modulo $N$ $\endgroup$ Jul 2 '20 at 18:35
  • $\begingroup$ Cf. this question $\endgroup$ Jul 2 '20 at 22:00
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By chinese remainder theorem, we only need to consider the case where $N = p^r$ is a prime power.

If $p$ is odd, then there are exactly two square roots of $1$. This can be seen from Hensel's lemma or the fact that $\Bbb Z/N\Bbb Z$ is cyclic in this case.

If $p = 2$, then it depends on the value of $r$.

$r = 1$: there is $1$ root ($1$).

$r = 2$: there are $2$ roots ($1, 3$).

$r \geq 3$: there are $4$ roots, congruent to $1, 3, 5, 7$ mod $8$, respectively.

This again is an exercise of Hensel's lemma.

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