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We want to determine the number of ways that 10 distinct pieces of candy can be placed into 2 identical bags with each bag getting at least 1 piece.
As we know the answer is $S(10,2)$, where $S$ stands for Stirling number of the second kind.
I thought that we can start by choosing two candies out 10 to put each one in a bag, so we will have that each bag is nonempty. Then, the remaining 8 candies will either be put in a single bag or put in the two bags (meaning each bag gets at least one candy out of 8) and that can be done in $S(8,2)$ ways. And finally, I get $S(10,2)= \binom {10}{2} \left( S(8,1) + S(8,2) \right) $.
I know that the result I get is wrong, because from the tables of the Stirling numbers $S(10,2)$ is $511$. But the reasoning seems to me correct!!! Where is the problem with my reasoning?

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Suppose there are 4 candies and 2 bags. let the candies be $1,2,3,4.$ Choose $2$ perhaps $\color{red}1,2.$ Then you place them in different bags and then you distribute the $2$ other candies as $\{3,4\}$ in one bag or $\{3\},\{4\}$ in two different bags. So one of the partitions created on this process is $\{\color{red}{1},3\},\{\color{red}{2},4\}.$

Notice that you could have chosen $\color{red}{3,4}$ instead of $1,2$ and so here also you will end up with $\{1,\color{red}{3}\},\{2,\color{red}{4}\}.$ In consequence, you are overcounting partitions. You are giving them a color!

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  • $\begingroup$ yeah that was really helpful, thank you $\endgroup$ – Math 512 Apr 1 '20 at 20:50
  • $\begingroup$ it would be interesting if I could find a way to subtract the overcounted cases, I will try that $\endgroup$ – Math 512 Apr 1 '20 at 20:52
  • $\begingroup$ Take a look at Jeea's answer(+1) for the way to not overcount. You are welcome! $\endgroup$ – Phicar Apr 1 '20 at 21:14
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Stirling number $S(n,k)$ is concerned with number of different groupings of $n$ entities into $k$ groups.

  1. Suppose that you have $n-1$ items and $k$ groups, then new nth element has to be added to one of the existing $k$ groups, so this will generate some of the required partitions. How many partitions can there be of this kind, well we can choose one out of $k$ groups, so $k \times S(n-1, k)$

  2. Another case can be when you have $n-1$ items and $k-1$ groups, then if we create a group in itself for nth added element, then this will generate partitions different from first case. So this is $S(n-1, k-1)$

Overall recurrence relation comes as

$$S(n, k) = kS(n-1, k) + S(n-1,k-1)$$

Phicar has already pointed out a mistake in your example

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  • $\begingroup$ thank you so much $\endgroup$ – Math 512 Apr 1 '20 at 20:56

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