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I am solving a sparse system of linear equations $Ax=b$, where $A$ is symmetric positive definite.

My matrix is 3210 x 3210, with about 10 non-zero values per row. For a specific $A$, I will need to find the solution $x$ for hundreds of different right sides $b$.

Iterative Gauss-Seidel method takes over 60 seconds. Iterative Conjugate Gradient Method takes 320 ms. Using CGM with a "Jacobi preconditioner" (a diagonal of $A$) takes 190 ms.

I would like to use Incomplete Cholesky factor as a preconditioner. It is clear how to compute a preconditioner $M = L \cdot L^T$. However, CGM method requires the inverse $M^{-1}={L^T}^{-1}\cdot L^{-1}$. Is there an efficient method to compute an inverse of a sparse triangular $L$? Will the result be as sparse as L?

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  • You do not need to evaluate the inverse of $M$. However you need to compute $x \mapsto M^{-1} x$. Solving a linear system with $L L^T$ uses the forward substitution and does not require $L^{-1}$.
  • With such a large number of right hand sides, you could also consider using a block CG method.
  • The inverse of a triangular matrix will remain triangular. However the inverse of a sparse matrix is not guaranteed to be sparse.
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  • $\begingroup$ I implemented the Incomplete Cholesky Factorization from Wikipedia, and sometimes, it requires me to compute a square root of a negative number. Is the algorithm wrong, or the Incomplete cholesky factor might not exist? Or it might be complex for a real-valued matrix? $\endgroup$ – Ivan Kuckir Feb 21 '20 at 16:05
  • $\begingroup$ I added 0.15 to the diagonal of $A$ before computing $L$, which solved negative values on a diagonal. Turns out Incomplete Cholesky preconditioner allows performing 2x less iterations, but an iteration takes 2x longer (because of solving $M^{-1}x$), so it was not worth implementing (Jacobi preconditioner is better). $\endgroup$ – Ivan Kuckir Feb 24 '20 at 23:49

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