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I was reading a research paper that includes Probability Formula but the authors didn't cite anything regards this formula. Please explain it so I can understand.

https://i.stack.imgur.com/IbPKg.png

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    $\begingroup$ See here. $\endgroup$ – user748968 Feb 14 at 4:10
  • $\begingroup$ Thank you @tora means a lot. $\endgroup$ – Ali Raza Feb 14 at 15:01
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I welcome @Graham for editing my question and make it more visible for readers. And appreciate @tora for answering the question. So, for the reader's convenience, I'm posting the relevant answer in that link.

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