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In probability theory, the experiments are defined as random (e.g., tossing the coin). But someone give an example of a non-random example? I struggle because any experiment before it happens has some level of uncertainty...

Thanks

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    $\begingroup$ Take the coin and place it carefully heads up on the table. $\endgroup$
    – user856
    Commented Dec 20, 2019 at 9:51
  • $\begingroup$ But if earthquake happens at this moment, can you be in the output ? $\endgroup$
    – John
    Commented Dec 20, 2019 at 9:53
  • $\begingroup$ Sure, this is known as a degenerate random variable $X$ for which there exists $c\in\mathbb R$ such that $\mathbb P(X=c)=1$. There is no randomness involved, although $X$ still meets the measurability requirements to be a random variable. $\endgroup$
    – Math1000
    Commented Dec 20, 2019 at 10:06
  • $\begingroup$ There is no randomness involved in a the process of tossing the coin. But there is randomness in the external environment. With such definition, I think we can think of any future event as random? $\endgroup$
    – John
    Commented Dec 20, 2019 at 13:46

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An early and historical example of the probability of a non-random event is Laplace's Rule of succession : what's the probability that the sun will rise tomorrow.

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