# Self-adjoint and compact operator on $L_2$ [closed]

Define the linear operator $$T : L_2[0, 1] \rightarrow L_2[0, 1]$$ by $$Tf(x) = \int_0^x \int_y^1 f(z)\,dz\,dy$$ I want to prove the operator is self-adjoint and compact.

Here's my attempt. For the self-adjoint part, we have for $$f,g\in L_2[0, 1]$$ $$\langle f,Tg \rangle = \int_0^1 f(x) Tg(x)dx$$ $$= \int_0^1 f(x)(\int_0^x\int_y^1g(z)dzdy)dx$$ $$= \int_0^1 \int_0^x\int_y^1 f(x) g(z)dzdydx$$ $$=$$

• The following link has some general results in this direction: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hilbert%E2%80%93Schmidt_integral_operator – Kavi Rama Murthy Dec 6 '19 at 7:23
• this is like a double application of the Volterra operator defined by $V(f):=\int_0^x f(t)dt$ for $f\in L^2([0,1])$. If you can show that this operator is compact you are almost done (the self-adjointness of $T$ follows from it definition) – Masacroso Dec 6 '19 at 7:43
• @Masacroso This is the answer to the question! Actually $T(f)=V(V^*(f))$ and by Schauder's theorem ( cf.here) $V^*$ is compact if and only if $V$ is compact, though boundedness of one of them and compactness of the other would suffice. – Peter Melech Dec 6 '19 at 12:58

I will let you show that $$T$$ is self-adjoint.
Observe \begin{align} T(f)(x) =&\ \int^1_x\int^{x}_0 f(z)\ dydz+\int^x_0 \int_0^z f(z)\ dydz\\ =&\ \int^1_x xf(z)\ dz+\int^x_0 zf(z)\ dz\\ =&\ \int^1_0[x\cdot\chi_{[x, 1]}(z)+z\cdot \chi_{[0, x]}(z)]f(z)\ dz\\ =&\int^1_0 k(x, z) f(z)\ dz \end{align} where $$k(x, z) = x\cdot\chi_{[x, 1]}(z)+z\cdot \chi_{[0, x]}(z)$$. To show that $$T$$ is compact, it suffices to show that $$T$$ is a Hilbert-Schmidt operator. In particular, it suffices to show that \begin{align} \int^1_0\int^1_0|k(x, z)|^2\ dxdy<\infty. \end{align} But that's clear since $$k(x,z)$$ is a bounded function on $$[0, 1]\times [0, 1]$$.
• Don't You mean $k(x,z)=x\cdot\chi_{[x,1]}(z)+z\cdot\chi_{[0,x]}(z)$? I don't understand the first equation, it looks like the variable $y$ in the bound of the integral is lost somewhere...? – Peter Melech Dec 6 '19 at 12:39
• Could you explain the first line "T(f)(x) =&\ \int^1_x\int^{x}_0 f(z)\ dydz+\int^x_0 \int_0^z f(z)\ dydz" and what does $\chi_{[x,1]}$ mean? – Teodorism Dec 7 '19 at 18:44