Let $x^\star$ be a solution of the linear program \begin{align} \text{maximize} &\quad c \cdot x \\ \text{subject to} &\quad A \cdot x \leq b \end{align} How can one compute the derivatives of $x^\star$ with respect to the linear program parameters? \begin{align} \frac{\partial x^\star}{\partial A} \qquad \frac{\partial x^\star}{\partial b} \qquad \frac{\partial x^\star}{\partial c} \end{align}

where derivatives are interpreted in the matrix calculus sense, e.g. $$\left( \frac{\partial x}{\partial A} \right)_{ijk} = \frac{\partial x_i}{ \partial A_{jk}}$$

I suspect the KKT conditions might be useful here.

  • 1
    $\begingroup$ What does it even mean to take the derivative of a vector with a matrix or with another vector? $\endgroup$ – Math1000 Dec 2 at 20:37
  • $\begingroup$ @Math1000 $\left( \frac{\partial x}{\partial A} \right)_{ijk} = \frac{\partial x_i}{\partial A_{jk}}$ for example. $\endgroup$ – user76284 Dec 2 at 21:34
  • $\begingroup$ @Math1000 See also en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matrix_calculus. $\endgroup$ – user76284 Dec 4 at 0:53

This is known as sensitivity analysis. If you have a non-degenerate optimal basic feasible solution, it is relatively simple to find derivatives of the optimal BFS or the optimal objective value with respect to changes in b or c. Changes to A can also be analyzed, but this is somewhat more complicated.

If the optimal BFS is degenerate, these derivatives may not exist.

See just about any textbook on linear programming.

Here's a brief explanation.

First, put your LP into standard form by adding slack variables to eliminate the inequality constraints:

$\min c^{T}x$

subject to


$x \geq 0$

Here $A$ is a matrix of size $m$ by $n$ with rank $m$.

If there is a unique and non-degenerate optimal basic feasible solution, Then the variables in $x$ can be split up into a vector $x_{B}$ of $m$ basic variables and a vector $x_{N}$ of $n-m$ nonbasic variables.

Let $B$ be the matrix obtaining by taking the columns of $A$ that are in the basis and $A_{N}$ consist of the remaining columns of $A$. Similarly, let $c_{B}$ and $c_{N}$ be the coefficients in $c$ corresponding to basic and nonbasic variables.

You can now write the problem as

$\min c_{B}^{T}x_{B}+c_{N}^{T}x_{N}$

subject to


$x \geq 0$.

In the optimal basic solution, we solve for $x_{B}$ and write the problem as

$\min c_{B}^{T}B^{-1}b + (c_{N}^{T}-c_{B}^{T}B^{-1}A_{N})x_{N} $

subject to

$x_{B}=B^{-1}b-B^{-1}A_{N}x_{N} $

$x \geq 0.$

An important optimality condition that the simplex method ensures is that

$r_{N}=c_{N}-c_{B}^{T}B^{-1}A_{N} \geq 0.$

If the solution is also dual non-degenerate, then $r_{N}>0$. We'll need to assume that as well.

In the optimal basic solution, we set all of the variables in $x_{N}$ to $x_{N}^{*}=0$ and get the values of the basic variables from $x_{B}^{*}=B^{-1}b$. By assumption, this optimal basic feasible solution is non-degenerate, meaning that $B^{-1}b$ is strictly greater than 0. Small changes to $b$ won't change $r_{N}$ and won't violate $x_{B} \geq 0$, so the solution will remain optimal after small changes to $b$.

Now, it should be clear that

$\frac{\partial x_{B}^{*}}{\partial b}=B^{-1}$


$\frac{\partial x_{N}^{*}}{\partial b}=0.$

Small changes in $c$ won't change $x_{B}$ at all, and will not lose $r_{N} \geq 0$. Thus the solution will remain optimal, and $x_{B}$ won't change, although the optimal objective value will change. Thus

$\frac{\partial x_{B}^{*}}{\partial c}=0$


$\frac{\partial x_{N}^{*}}{\partial c}=0.$

If the assumptions of non-degeneracy are violated then these derivatives may simply not exist!

In a similar way, you can analyze changes in $A_{N}$ or in $B$.

This stuff is discussed in V. Chvatal's Linear Programming among many other textbooks on the subject.

  • $\begingroup$ Do you know of a specific reference that addresses partial derivatives of the attained solution with respect to the parameters? I only found ones addressing partial derivatives of the attained value. $\endgroup$ – user76284 Dec 5 at 3:04
  • $\begingroup$ I've expanded the answer including a reference and showing you how to find derivatives of the optimal solution with respect to changes in $b$ and $c$. $\endgroup$ – Brian Borchers Dec 5 at 4:26

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