The following is an easy corollary from noncommutative Khintchine's inequality (see, e.g., Vershynin's high-dimensional probability book, Theorem 6.5.1).

Let $A$ be an $n\times n$ symmetric random matrix whose entries on and above the diagonal are independent, mean zero random variables. Then $$ \mathbb{E}\|A\| \lesssim \sqrt{\log n}\ \mathbb{E}\max_i \| A_i\|_2 $$ where $\|A\|$ denotes the operator norm of $A$ and $A_i$ denotes the $i$-th row of $A$.

Question: Is $\sqrt{\log n}$ necessary in the bound above?

Vershynin's book claims that it is necessary (Exercise 6.5.4) but I am unable to find an example. The bound seems quite loose to me, actually, and it is already loose for diagonal matrices and Wigner matrices. I looked up the literature, and for entries that are gaussians (with different variances) the bound above is definitely loose, as it is known that when $A_{ij}\sim N(0,b_{ij}^2)$ (due to van Handel and others) we have $$ \mathbb{E}\|A\| \lesssim \max_i\sqrt{\sum_j b_{ij}^2} + (\max_{i,j} b_{ij})\sqrt{\log n}. $$ So the hope of finding a tight example is not to have Gaussian entries, and I don't have a clue for this. Usually I think the $\sqrt{\log n}$ factor would come from the maximum of $n$ gaussians in tightness examples.


1 Answer 1


This seems to be a mistake in Vershynin's book. Without any further assumption on the distribution, the optimal constant $C$ in the inequality $$ \mathbb{E}\|A\| \le C\,\mathbb{E}\max_i\|A_i\|_2 $$ is of order $\log^{1/4}n$. By symmetrization, it is enough consider the case $A_{ij}=a_{ij}\varepsilon_{ij}$ where $\varepsilon_{ij}$ are independent Rademacher variables and $a_{ij}$ are scalars. For this case the inequality with $C\lesssim \log^{1/4}n$, as well as an example showing this is the best possible, is due to Seginer, see section 3 of this paper. (A simpler proof of the Seginer bound appears in section 4.2 of this paper.)

When the entries are Gaussian or more heavy-tailed than Gaussian, the dimension-dependence is not needed at all and one always has $$ \mathbb{E}\|A\| \asymp \mathbb{E}\max_i\|A_i\|_2, $$ see this paper. In this case the operator norm is completely understood up to the universal constant. Another situation where the constant is dimension-free is when the distribution is arbitrary with mean zero but the entries are i.i.d. (not just independent), which was shown by Seginer in the earlier part of his paper.

  • $\begingroup$ Thank you Ramon. Your paper is very informative on this. So this implies that the spectral norm of a random matrix with i.i.d. gaussian entries of std $\sigma$ would be upper bounded by $sigma(\sqrt{n} + \sqrt(log(n)}$? $\endgroup$
    – Paul
    Aug 12, 2023 at 21:48

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