# Computing $\lim_{T\rightarrow\infty} \frac{1}{T}\int_0^T (2^x \alpha - \lfloor 2^x \alpha \rfloor) dx$

The brackets represent the integer part function. Is it correct to say that the limit is equivalent to $$\lim_{T\rightarrow\infty} \frac{1}{T}\int_0^T (2^x \alpha - \lfloor 2^x \alpha \rfloor) dx = \lim_{n\rightarrow\infty}\frac{1}{n}\sum_{k=1}^n (2^k \alpha - \lfloor 2^k \alpha \rfloor) ?$$ Here $$\alpha \in [0, 1]$$. This sounds like a straighforward application of the Euler-Maclaurin summation formula. If that's correct, then the limit in question is the proportion of binary digits of the number $$\alpha$$, that are equal to one (see exercise 15 in this article for details.) However, I have a vague feeling that this is not right: $$2^x \alpha = 2^{x+\log_2\alpha}$$, and with the change of variable $$y=x + \log_2 \alpha$$, the limit with the integral becomes $$\begin{split} \lim_{T\rightarrow\infty} \frac{1}{T}\int_0^T (2^x \alpha - \lfloor 2^x \alpha \rfloor) dx & = & \lim_{T\rightarrow\infty} \frac{1}{T}\int_{\log_2 \alpha}^{T+\log_2 \alpha} (2^y - \lfloor 2^y \rfloor) dy \\ & = & \lim_{T\rightarrow\infty} \frac{1}{T}\int_0^T (2^y - \lfloor 2^y \rfloor) dy& \end{split}$$ In short, the limit with the integral does not depend on $$\alpha$$ while the limit with the summation does. Since for the vast majority of numbers $$\alpha$$ except for a set set of Lebesgue measure zero, consisting of non-normal numbers, the limit involving the summation is $$\frac{1}{2}$$, my guess is that the limit with the integral is always equal to $$\frac{1}{2}$$ regardless of $$\alpha$$ (except for $$\alpha = 0$$).

• You can replace $\{ 2^x \alpha\}$ by $1/2$ without fear because the small $x$ don't contribute to the limit. – reuns Sep 21 at 17:35
• Who said you can't ? Now it is non-trivial to find for which $\alpha \in \Bbb{R}$, $\lim\int=\lim\sum$ whereas it is trivial to show $\lim\int=1/2$ – reuns Sep 21 at 17:52
• @Reuns: Then there must be something with the Euler-Maclaurin summation formula, that makes it non-applicable in this case, for instance if $\alpha = 1/2$. What would that be? – Vincent Granville Sep 21 at 18:10