# Historical abbreviation of 'multiplied'

I was reading Bayes' essay "An Essay towards Solving a Problem in the Doctrine of Chances" and noticed the following bit of notation

The meaning of the n+1 term is clear from the rest of the essay (in modern terms it would be surrounded by parentheses rather than have the bar), but the ×d part confused me. Initially I thought it meant "multiply d times", but there is no numeric variable d elsewhere, leading me to think that ×d is meant to be an abbreviation for "multiplied".

Has ×d been used in other works to mean multiplied? Here, it seems to mean that in context (it fits the sentence, at least), but other historical examples would increase my confidence.

A copy of the paper is here. The image is from the bottom of page 29 of the PDF.

• In context, could it by a typo? That is, does it make sense to just be x d with the d not raised? Jun 6, 2019 at 19:33
• Given the effort involved in letterpress printing, that sort of typo is unlikely. Also, using superscript final letters for abbreviations used to be quite a common thing. Jun 6, 2019 at 19:52
• I don't think it would make sense, since that would mean multiplied by d, but there aren't any variables d in the paper (except for about 13 pages back, but that refers to a point, not a number). Jun 6, 2019 at 19:53
• The first x does not have any raised d. On the same page, clearly x is not the same as the algebraic x also used, and has superscripts which seem to represent powers. Jun 6, 2019 at 19:56
• @AndrewLeach It being that convention would make sense, and it seems to be used elsewhere in the paper with the 'multiplied by' meaning. Jun 6, 2019 at 20:01

(n+1) x EX^d