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If $p$ is a polynomial in $t$ of degree $n$, say $$ p(t) = a_nt^n + \cdots + a_1t + a_0, $$ then if we choose $n+1$ distinct points $t_0, \dots, t_n$, the $a_k$s are completely determined by the values of $p(t_0), \dots, p(t_n)$.

If we define $$ c(t) = a_0e^{i\omega_0t} + \cdots + a_ne^{i\omega_nt}, $$ can we determine the $a_k$s and $\omega_k$s by looking at the values of $c$ on finitely many choices of $t$?

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$c(t) = \sum_{m=1}^n a_m e^{i w_m t}$ the $w_m$ are distinct and the $a_m$ are non-zero.

The shifts of the functions $e^{i w_m t}$ generate a vector space of dimension $n$, the same as the vector space generated by the shifts of $c(t)$.

Pick some $t_1,\ldots,t_n$ such that the $c(t+t_j)$ are linearly independent, we get some $B_{m,j}$ such that $$\forall m, \forall t, \qquad e^{i \omega_m t} = \sum_{j=1}^n B_{m,j} c(t+t_j)$$

from there we have the linear maps $$\pmatrix{c(t+T+t_1)\\ \vdots \\ c(t+T+t_n)} = B^{-1} e^{i \text{ diag}(w) T} B \pmatrix{c(t+t_1)\\ \vdots \\ c(t+t_n)}$$

Your question reduces to sample finitely many values of $c$ to recover $ B^{-1} e^{i \text{ diag}(w)} B$ and $ B^{-1} e^{i \text{diag}(w) T} B$ with say $T=\pi$, diagonalize those matrices to recover $i w \bmod 2i \pi$ and $i w T\bmod 2i \pi$ from which we know $w$ and hence $a$.

For the concrete implementation see the MUSIC algorithm.

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