The intention of this community wiki is to aid in learning another language in the restricted topic of mathematics. It does matter whether one wants to learn another language for mathematics or use mathematics as a stepping stone into another language. This post focuses only on the written aspect of the language.
For each language, there is a a small description, which includes its difficulty and pay-off, and a list of works to help learn it, which includes one or two grammar books and several works written in the language, which are accompanied by a description that includes their difficulty of reading. If it is a historical paper or it difficult to find in print, then a link to it will be provided if one is known. Since this is more about learning the language, works that are easier to read are preferred, although very famous works might also be mentioned, and, in the case of ancient languages, an exhaustive list list of all mathematical works in this language is ideal. Works that include a heavy amount of mathematics, but whose main topic is not mathematics but a related field, such as physics or astronomy, are sometimes acceptable, especially in the case when they are written in dead languages.
Some General Tips:
- Often, dictionaries and translators do not translate mathematical vocabulary well. A good way to go about this is to use Wikipedia by switching the language of the page.