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I have an upcoming talk in on data science. Now a ways such topics have been hijacked by talks on the use of machine learning. Deviating from the trend, I want to focus of core advancement of mathematics that has been made in times of crisis, especially war. Some examples - Linear programming was born out of the need of solving military logistics during the world war, Lagrange wrote treatise on ballistics to aid the Napoleonic wars

I am looking for examples from history and literature on

  • Mathematics evolving out of military need
  • Mathematics not specifically invented for military needs but found unexpected applications in military.

Please exclude general topics which are too board. E.g. calculus and trigonometry would not qualify because they are too board. Specific applications would also be interesting to look at e.g. the Jeep Problem

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  • $\begingroup$ You could check out Alan Turing. $\endgroup$ – Vizag Jun 15 at 14:36
  • $\begingroup$ If you are preparing a talk for a class project/conference or whatever, you should really learn to do your own research. It's an important skill. $\endgroup$ – Morgan Rodgers Jun 15 at 14:46
  • $\begingroup$ @Morgan Rodgers I do have my own shortlist that's is how I selected Mathematics of War as a topic in the first. However it is always good to take suggestions because I there might be a something more interesting that you could have missed $\endgroup$ – Nilotpal Kanti Sinha Jun 15 at 14:57
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    $\begingroup$ You may want to take a look at differential games and motion camouflage. $\endgroup$ – Rodrigo de Azevedo Jun 15 at 15:03
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    $\begingroup$ You might be interested in "Lanchester's laws of combat": en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lanchester%27s_laws $\endgroup$ – awkward Jun 15 at 19:51
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Aspray's «John von Neumann and the Origins of Modern Computing» and Godement's four-volume series on mathematical analysis come to mind.

The first book contains information about von Neumann's career, with a focus on his involvement in the war, in particular as a military consultant and the development of the electronic computer. Definitely an interesting read.

Godement's books were originally written in French, but English translations are published by Springer. I have yet to have a detailed look at them, but they appear to be interspersed with (his subjective) comments on mathematical culture. The second volume ends with a nearly 50 page postface with the title «Science, technology, arms», which also could be a place to start.

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