# Cauchy-Binet Formula (Matrix Proof)

Below is proof of the Cauchy-Binet Formula found on Wikipedia.

Why are the last two equations equal?

Let $$\textbf{A}$$ be a $$m\times n$$ matrix and $$\textbf{B}$$ be a $$n\times m$$ matrix.

\begin{align*} \displaystyle \det \left({\mathbf A \mathbf B}\right)&=\sum_{1 \mathop \le l_1, \mathop \ldots \mathop , l_m \mathop \le m} \epsilon \left({l_1, \ldots, l_m}\right) \left({\sum_{k \mathop = 1}^n a_{1 k} b_{k l_1} }\right) \cdots \left({\sum_{k \mathop = 1}^n a_{m k} b_{k l_m} }\right)\\ &=\sum_{1 \mathop \le k_1, \mathop \ldots \mathop , k_m \mathop \le n} a_{1 k_1} \cdots a_{m k_m} \sum_{1 \mathop \le l_1, \mathop \ldots \mathop , l_m \mathop \le m} \epsilon \left({l_1, \ldots, l_m}\right) b_{k_1 l_1} \cdots b_{k_m l_m}\\ &=\sum_{1 \mathop \le k_1, \mathop \ldots \mathop , k_m \mathop \le n} a_{1 k_1} \cdots a_{m k_m} \det \left({\mathbf B_{k_1 \cdots k_m} }\right)\\ &=\sum_{1 \mathop \le k_1, \mathop \ldots \mathop , k_m \mathop \le n} \epsilon \left({k_1, \ldots, k_m}\right)a_{1 k_1} \cdots a_{m k_m} \det \left({\mathbf B_{j_1 \cdots j_m} }\right) \tag{1}\\ &=\sum_{1 \mathop \le j_1 \mathop \le j_2 \mathop \le \cdots \mathop \le j_m \le n} \det \left({\mathbf A_{j_1 \cdots j_m} }\right) \det \left({\mathbf B_{j_1 \cdots j_m} }\right) \tag{2}\\ \end{align*}

This is how far I got starting with equation $$(2)$$... $$$$\sum_{1 \mathop \le j_1 \mathop \le j_2 \mathop \le \cdots \mathop \le j_m \le n} \det \left({\mathbf A_{j_1 \cdots j_m} }\right) \det \left({\mathbf B_{j_1 \cdots j_m} }\right) = \sum_{1 \mathop \le j_1 \mathop \le j_2 \mathop \le \cdots \mathop \le j_m \le n} (\sum_{1\leq k_1,...,\ k_m\leq n}\epsilon(k_1, k_2, ...,k_m)a_{j_1,k_1}a_{j_2,k_2}...a_{j_m,k_m}) \det \left({\mathbf B_{j_1 \cdots j_m} }\right)$$$$

The last $$=$$ just factors out $$\det A_{j_1\cdots j_m}$$, defined in terms of the Levi-Civita symbol.
• Why does the index chain on the lower limit of the sum then? The index for equation $(1)$ is $1\leq k_1, k_2, ..., k_m\leq n$ and for the second equation is $1\leq j_1 \leq j_2 \leq ... \leq j_m \leq n$. How does it go from there to there? May 29, 2019 at 14:02