How does this entropy equation simplify?

This is from the bok "Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning" By Bishop. I am having a hard time following the last step of this equation Where Stirlings approxaimation is subtituted for $$\ln N!$$ to arrive at the final step...

We can understand this alternative view of entropy by considering a set of N identical objects that are to be divided amongst a set of bins, such that there are $$n_i$$ objects in the $$i_{th}$$ bin. Consider

the number of different ways of allocating the objects to the bins. There are $$N$$ ways to choose the first object, $$(N − 1)$$ ways to choose the second object, and so on, leading to a total of $$N!$$ ways to allocate all $$N$$ objects to the bins, where $$N!$$ (pronounced ‘factorial N ’) denotes the product $$N × (N − 1) × · · · × 2 × 1$$. However, we don’t wish to distinguish between rearrangements of objects within each bin. In the $$i^th$$ bin there are $$n_i!$$ ways of reordering the objects, and so the total number of ways of allocating the $$N$$ objects to the bins is given by

$$W = \frac{N!}{\prod_i n_i!}$$

which is called the multiplicity. The entropy is then defined as the logarithm of the multiplicity scaled by an appropriate constant

$$H = \frac{1}{N} \ln W = \frac{1}{N} \ln N! - \frac{1}{N} \sum_i \ln n_i!$$

We now consider the limit $$N → ∞$$, in which the fractions $$n_i/N$$ are held fixed, and apply Stirlings approximation

$$\ln N! \backsimeq N \ln N - N$$

which gives

$$H = - \lim_{x \rightarrow \infty} \sum_i \Big( \frac{n_i}{N} \Big) \ln \Big( \frac{n_i}{N} \Big) = - \sum_i p_i \ln p_i$$

where we have used $$\sum_i n_i = N$$. Here $$p_i = \lim_{N \rightarrow \infty} (ni/N)$$ is the probability of an object being assigned to the $$i_{th}$$ bin. In physics terminology, the specific ar- rangements of objects in the bins is called a microstate, and the overall distribution of occupation numbers, expressed through the ratios $$n_i/N$$, is called a macrostate. The multiplicity $$W$$ is also known as the weight of the macrostate.

• Comments here should be helpful: math.stackexchange.com/questions/907056/… . Basically use Stirling's approximation on $\textit{both}$ $\ln N$ and $\ln n_i$, – twnly May 19 at 0:18
• you meant to have a factorial in your comment next to $ln N$ and $n_i$, right? – deltaskelta May 19 at 0:25
• Yep, my bad. Just apply Stirling's formula to both quantities and simplify. – twnly May 19 at 0:28
• I'm still having some trouble simplifying it down right. How should it go? – deltaskelta May 19 at 0:42

After doing the substitution for $$\ln N!$$ and $$\ln n_i!$$ in the definition of $$H$$, and remembering that $$\sum_i n_i = N$$, you should have come up with the following equation:
$$H \approx \ln N - \frac{1}{N}\sum_i n_i \ln n_i$$
The trick then is to multiply the $$\ln N$$ by 1, in the form $$\frac{\sum_i n_i}{N}$$. The result then follows directly: $$H \approx \frac{\sum_i n_i}{N} \ln N - \frac{1}{N}\sum_i n_i \ln n_i = -\frac{1}{N}\sum_i n_i (\ln n_i - \ln N) = -\sum_i \frac{n_i}{N} \ln \left ( \frac{n_i}{N}\right )$$
• Thanks for your answer. I did arrive at your first point and the multiplication by 1 is what I was missing. I am fuzzy on the first step of your second equation though. How do you get from the beginning to having the $n_i(\ln n_i - \ln N)$ as the summand? What property of logarithms is being used there? – deltaskelta May 19 at 3:09