I am stuck on proving that that $\binom{n}{d} = \Theta(n^d)$ for any positive fixed integer d. I tried using the fact that if this is true, it means that for some integers c$_1$ and c$_2$, $c_1n^d \le |\frac{n!}{(n-d)!d!}| \le c_2n^d$ for any $n \ge n_0$ where $n_0$ is an integer. I tried using the fact that since n is greater than d and d is positive, then $|\frac{n!}{(n-d)!d!}|$ = $\frac{n!}{(n-d)!d!}$.

If the above equation is true in which the binomial expansion is bounded, then it would mean that $c_2 \ge \frac{n!}{n^d(n-d)!d!}$, and similarly, $c_1 \le \frac{n!}{n^d(n-d)!d!}$ So I have absolutely no idea how to find these constants $c_1$ and $c_2$, let alone find what $n_0$ is.

Can someone please help me with this in a way that allows me to at least understand more of what's going on here?

Thank you in advance.

  • $\begingroup$ Hint: write $n!/(n-d)!$ as $n(n-1)(n-2)\cdots(n-d+1)$. $\endgroup$ – Greg Martin Apr 2 at 7:52


$$\binom n3=\frac{n^3-3n^2+2n}6=\Theta(n^3).$$

More hint:

Consider the function

$$\frac{\displaystyle\binom n3}{n^3}=\frac1{3!}\left(1-\frac0n\right)\left(1-\frac1n\right)\left(1-\frac2n\right).$$

For $n>2$, this is a growing function, as all factors are positive and growing. Then for $n\ge3$, its range is


More generally,

for $n\ge d, \dfrac1{d^d}\le\dfrac{\displaystyle\binom nd}{n^d}\le\dfrac1{d!}$.

  • $\begingroup$ How does $\frac{n^3 - 3n^2 + 2n}{6} = \Theta(n^3)$ ? You can't factor out $n^3$ such that $\frac{n^3 - 3n^2 + 2n}{6} \le kn^3$ for some $k$. $\endgroup$ – Tim Apr 2 at 8:21
  • $\begingroup$ @tim: of course I can ! Try with $k=1$. $\endgroup$ – Yves Daoust Apr 2 at 8:24
  • $\begingroup$ Why did you write it out like $\frac{\binom{n}{3}}{n^3} = \frac{1}{3!}(1-\frac{0}{n})(1-\frac{1}{n})(1-\frac{2}{n})$? I just had $\frac{\binom{n}{3}}{n^3} = \frac{1}{3!}(1-\frac{3}{n}+\frac{2}{n^2})$ $\endgroup$ – Tim Apr 2 at 8:41
  • $\begingroup$ @Tim: read my explanations. $\endgroup$ – Yves Daoust Apr 2 at 9:20
  • $\begingroup$ Yes, I see what you mean now. Thank you. $\endgroup$ – Tim Apr 2 at 9:59

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