Show that there exists a set of unitary matrices $\{U_i\}$, and probability $\{p_i\}$, such that for any $n \times n$ matrix $A$ \begin{equation} \tag{1} \sum_{i} p_i U_i A U^{\dagger}_i = \text{tr}(A) \frac{I}{n} \end{equation}


For $n=2$, it is easy to show \begin{equation} \frac{1}{4} ( \sigma^x A \sigma^x + \sigma^y A \sigma^y + \sigma^z A \sigma^z + I A I ) = \text{tr}(A) I / 2 \end{equation} where $\sigma^{x,y,z}$ are Pauli sigma matrices. The idea comes from kraus operator sum representation.

We can then generalize to dimension $n = 2^m$, where $U_i$ can be taken as the tensor products of these basis, but not arbitrary dimension.

In indices, Eq.(1) is equivalent to \begin{equation} \sum_i p_i (U_i)_{ab} (U_i^*)_{dc} = \delta_{bc} \delta_{ad} / n \end{equation} This looks like the identity from the finite dimensional irreducible unitary representation of finite group, see Peter-Weyl theorem. But again this only works when group $G$ has irreducible representation at dimension $n$, and all $p_i$ in this case are equal.

I feel that "right proof" should not utilize these additional structures.

  • $\begingroup$ It may help to observe that the Choi matrix of your operator is given by $$ C_{\Phi} = \frac 1n I_n \otimes I_n $$ since the desired decomposition is a Kraus decomposition, the matrices $U_i$ must satisfy $$ \sum_{i}p_i \operatorname{vec}(U_i)\operatorname{vec}(U_i)^{\dagger} = C_{\Phi} = \frac 1n I_n \otimes I_n $$ $\endgroup$ – Ben Grossmann Mar 20 '19 at 19:00
  • $\begingroup$ An educated guess: I think that $U_i = W^i$ should work, where $W$ is the $n \times n$ DFT matrix, with all $p_i = \frac 1n$ $\endgroup$ – Ben Grossmann Mar 20 '19 at 19:07
  • $\begingroup$ Never mind, my guess fails. The $U_i$ must span the set of all $n \times n$ matrices, which my guess fails to do. Notably, the $U_i$ cannot be simultaneously diagonalizable. $\endgroup$ – Ben Grossmann Mar 20 '19 at 19:10
  • $\begingroup$ Perhaps it helps though to know that you're looking for a set of unitary matrices $U_i$ whose span is $\Bbb C^{n \times n}$ $\endgroup$ – Ben Grossmann Mar 20 '19 at 19:31
  • $\begingroup$ @Omnomnomnom, yes problem solved if you find a basis for matrix. $\endgroup$ – anecdote Mar 21 '19 at 20:56

An attempted proof of existence that doesn't actually construct the spanning set and distribution.

First, we note that the set of unitary matrices spans $\Bbb C^{n \times n}$; we could prove this nicely using polar decomposition. From there, we note that there must exist a basis of $\Bbb C^{n \times n}$ $\{U_1,U_2,\dots,U_{n^2}\}$ consisting of unitary matrices.

It follows that the vectors $\operatorname{vec}(U_1),\dots,\operatorname{vec}(U_{n^2})$ span $\Bbb C^{n^2}$.

The argument below is incorrect

(Thus, there necessarily exist (positive) $p_k$ such that $$ \frac 1n I_{n^2} = \sum_{i} p_i \operatorname{vec}(U_i)\operatorname{vec}(U_i)^\dagger $$ We correspondingly find that these $U_i$ satisfy $\sum_{i} p_i U_iA U_i^\dagger = \frac 1n \operatorname{tr}(A) I$, as desired.)

Some clarification:

First of all, the linear span bit. Let $\langle \cdot, \cdot \rangle$ denote the Frobenius (Hilbert-Schmidt) inner product. Suppose that $A$ lies in the orthogonal complement of the span of the unitary matrices. Let $A = UP$ be a polar decomposition. Then we have $$ 0 = \langle U, A \rangle = \operatorname{trace}(U^\dagger A) = \operatorname{trace}(U^\dagger UP) = \operatorname{trace}(P) $$ but $P$ is positive semidefinite, so $\operatorname{trace}(P) = 0$ implies that $P = 0$. Thus, $A$ must be zero.

So, the span of the unitary matrices is all $\Bbb C^{n \times n}$.

Another obsrevation:

Let $\mathcal C_U$ denote the convex cone generated by the set $\{uu^* : u = \operatorname{vec}(U) \text{ for some unitary } U \}$. Showing that $\sum_{i} p_i \operatorname{vec}(U_i)\operatorname{vec}(U_i) = I$ can be achieved with non-negative coefficients $p_i$ means that we're trying to show that $I \in \mathcal C_U$.

One orthogonal basis for $\Bbb C^{n \times n}$ consisting of unitary matrices is as follows: let $$ X = \pmatrix{0&&&&1\\1&0\\&1&0\\&&\ddots\\&&&1}, Z = \pmatrix{1\\ & \omega \\ && \ddots \\ &&& \omega^{n-1}} $$ Then the matrices $\{Z^j X^k : 0 \leq j,k \leq n-1\}$ form our orthogonal basis.

  • $\begingroup$ I am a bit slow here... Can you show how to get the linear span from the polar decomposition? $\endgroup$ – anecdote Mar 22 '19 at 3:17
  • $\begingroup$ About the resolution identity: let me write $\text{vec}(U_i)$ as $v_i$. Now $\{ v_i \}$ is a set of basis, if $I = n \sum_i p_i v_i v_i^{\dagger}$, then $G_{ij} = n G_{ik} p_k G_{kj}$ where $G_{ij}$ is the Gram matrix. Then how do we show that $p_k $ exist? I thought $v_i$ here are not necessarily orthogonal. $\endgroup$ – anecdote Mar 22 '19 at 3:21
  • $\begingroup$ I clarified the polar decomposition argument. It seems clear that I'm wrong about that second argument though. Nevertheless, I have a feeling that the fact that the unitaries "are a large enough set" will somehow be enough here. $\endgroup$ – Ben Grossmann Mar 22 '19 at 13:46
  • $\begingroup$ Following the argument in proposition 2.2 of this paper, I can show that there exist real coefficients $a_i$ and unitary matrices $U_i$ such that $$ \sum_{i} a_i \operatorname{vec}(U_i)\operatorname{vec}(U_i)^\dagger = \frac 1n I $$ That being said, what we would need is a way to guarantee that the coefficients $a_i$ are non-negative, which I haven't been able to come up with. $\endgroup$ – Ben Grossmann Mar 22 '19 at 14:00
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ @anecdote Let me rephrase the argument: define $W \subseteq \Bbb C^{n \times n}$ to be the subspace spanned by the unitary matrices. What I show is that if $A \in W^\perp$, then $A = 0$. It follows that $W = \Bbb C^{n \times n}$ $\endgroup$ – Ben Grossmann Mar 22 '19 at 16:19

I feel this is cheating a bit and there should be a more interesting answer, but this had a representation theory flavor to me and I believe the question as asked is answered. First of all, note that $tr(A)=tr\left(\sum_i p_i U_iAU_i^\dagger\right)$ for any unitaries $U_i$. Second, note when the $\{U_i\}$ are the set of representation matrices of a representation of a group $G$ and the $p_i = \frac{1}{|G|}$, that the group average $\sum_i p_i U_iAU_i^\dagger$ is invariant under conjugation by the representation: for every $j$ $$U_j\left(\sum_i p_i U_iAU_i^\dagger\right)U_j^\dagger=\sum_i p_i U_iAU_i^\dagger.$$ Let $G$ be the group of signed permutations, i.e. the group generated by the subgroup of $n\times n$ permutation matrices and the subgroup of diagonal matrices with $\pm 1$'s on the diagonal. These matrices are all unitary. The permutation matrices are generated by pairwise transpositions; conjugating by one of these switches a pair of rows and the corresponding pair of columns, from this it follows that a matrix invariant under conjugation by permutations must have a constant diagonal and constant off-diagonal. Similarly, conjugation by a diagonal matrix with $1$'s and a single $-1$ on the diagonal will leave the diagonal unchanged but change the sign of the off diagonal elements in the corresponding row and column. In particular a matrix invariant under this diagonal subgroup must have zero off diagonal entries. Taken together the only matrices invariant under both subgroups, hence the whole group, are multiples of the identity matrix. The result follows.


Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.