Getting started with Markov Chain.

I have just started to study Markov Chains from the last chapter (Page-$$130$$) of the book of Seymur Lipchuz.

I haven't understood this particular sentence: "We now consider a sequence of trials whose outcomes, say, $$X_1$$,$$X_2$$, ..." .

What do those random variables represent, say, in the following matrix?

A Markov Chain $$(X_n)_n$$ has the following transition matrix:
$$P = \begin{bmatrix} 0.1 & 0.3 & 0.6\\ 0 & 0.4 & 0.6\\ 0.3&0.2&0.5 \end{bmatrix}$$ with initial distribution $$\alpha = (0.2, 0.3, 0.5)$$.

What do the terms $$X_n$$ mean in this context?

What does the term, say, $$P(X_9 = 2|X_1 = 2, X_5 = 1, X_7 = 3)$$ mean in this context?

what does the term $$EX_2$$ mean in this context?

• As it says on page 130, "We now consider a sequence of trials whose outcomes, say, X1,X2, ". The $P$ expression is a conditional probability. I don't see $EX_2$ anywhere on that page but I would guess it means the expected value of $X_2$. – John Douma Mar 10 at 5:28
• I recommend you read the examples immediately following the definitions. It may be a good idea to use multiple sources if you are learning this on your own. – John Douma Mar 10 at 5:49

$$X_i$$ is the result of the $$i$$th "trial" in a sequence. The Markov Chain has three states and the transition matrix $$P$$ gives the probabilities of moving between states for any particular step in the chain (from state row# to state column#). Note that the row sums of $$P$$ all equal $$1$$.
For example, if the state at time $$n$$ is $$1$$, the probabilities for the state at time $$n+1$$ are given by the first row. The probability of state $$n+1$$ equalling one, given that the state $$n$$ was one, equals 0.1. This is written $$P(X_{n+1} = 1|X_n=1) = 0.1$$. The rest of the row gives the other possibilities for transition from state one: P(state $$1 \rightarrow$$ state $$2$$) $$= 0.3$$, P(state $$1 \rightarrow$$ state $$3$$) $$=0.6$$.
This means that the conditional probability: $$𝑃(𝑋_9=2|𝑋_1=2,𝑋_5=1,𝑋_7=3)$$ is supplying unnecessary information. It might be translated to: What is the probability of moving from "state 3" to "state 2" in exactly $$9-7=2$$ steps.