# What does the $\wedge$-symbol mean in academic papers?

For instance, here's definition 16 of the Ethereum Yellow Paper:

Does $$\wedge$$ simply mean a concatenation of statements? Like the logic gate AND?

• Its the AND statement. – Wuestenfux Jan 5 at 12:29

$$\wedge$$ is exactly 'and' in this context. $$\vee$$ means 'or'. You can notice the similarity both in form and meaning with $$\cap$$ and $$\cup$$ from set theory.

In differential geometry, $$\omega_1\wedge\omega_2$$ also means the wedge product of two differential forms.

$$\wedge$$ is (most often) the mathematical symbol for logical conjunction, which is equivalent to the AND operator you're used to.

Similarly $$\vee$$ is (most often) logical disjunction, which would be equivalent to the OR operator.

Yes, this symbol is generally used to denote AND. See the wikipedia article on Logical Conjunction:

$$A\land B$$ is true only if $$A$$ is true and $$B$$ is true

Similarly, we use $$A\lor B$$ to mean $$A$$ OR $$B$$ (logical disjunction).