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Prove that for any integer value of $D$, the equation $27x + 14y = D$ has integer solutions for $x$ and $y$.

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closed as off-topic by Saad, DRF, user593746, José Carlos Santos, Jyrki Lahtonen Dec 18 '18 at 15:05

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    $\begingroup$ @YvesDaoust: That's true. The tags don't seem to suggest anything with regard to elementary number theory. $\endgroup$ – Yadati Kiran Dec 18 '18 at 7:34
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    $\begingroup$ But if the OP can solve $27x + 14y = 1$ then the OP might, if clever enough, be able to apply it to solve $27x + 14y = D$. Don't think Lord shark the Unknown is required to spell it out. I think the OP can be expected to think it through. $\endgroup$ – fleablood Dec 18 '18 at 7:39
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    $\begingroup$ I'll try my best to figure out why everyone here is loving 1 so much, thanks for helping $\endgroup$ – Yolo Dec 18 '18 at 7:40
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    $\begingroup$ Well, I love one because $1 + 1 =2$ and $2 + 1 = 3$ and $3 + 1 = 4$. And $513*1 = 513$. $1$ is a pretty danged wonderful number cause it gets you places. $\endgroup$ – fleablood Dec 18 '18 at 7:42
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    $\begingroup$ gcd(27,14) = 1 and any number is divisible by 1 therefore any value of D is has integer solutions, thanks y'all $\endgroup$ – Yolo Dec 18 '18 at 8:01
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$$27x+14y=D(28-27)$$

$\iff27(x+D)=14(2D-y)$

$\dfrac{14(2D-y)}{27}=x+D$ which is an integer

$\implies27|14(2D-y)\implies27|(2D-y)$ as $(14,27)=1$

$\dfrac{2D-y}{27}=c$(say) where $c$ is an arbitrary integer

$\implies y=?$

$\implies x=?$

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  • $\begingroup$ I get what you are trying to say thanks but why we are trying to make it = 1? $\endgroup$ – Yolo Dec 18 '18 at 7:34
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    $\begingroup$ @Yolo, I have not chosen $D=1,D$ can be any integer $\endgroup$ – lab bhattacharjee Dec 18 '18 at 7:41
  • $\begingroup$ Homework solution, nothing more. $\endgroup$ – amWhy Dec 18 '18 at 20:46
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If you can find $27x_0 + 14y_0 = 1$ then can find $27(D*x_0) + 14(D*y_0) = D$.

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  • $\begingroup$ Homework solution, nothing more. $\endgroup$ – amWhy Dec 18 '18 at 20:46
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I'm by no means a math expert, but it seems to me that if you can solve for D=1, (x = -1, y = 2), then multiplying the entire equation by any integer, results in an integer solution for the general equation. I don't know how to put this into mathematical proof terms, but basically because there is a solution where D = 1, then multiplying the entire equation by some arbitrary integer c means that for any integer D, there is a solution, because you can multiply both x and y by the same number, and get a solution.

Maybe someone else can give a more formal explanation of what I'm trying to say.

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  • $\begingroup$ " then multiplying the entire equation by any integer, results in an integer solution for the general equation. " BINGO! $\endgroup$ – fleablood Dec 18 '18 at 21:38
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$$27x + 14y = D$$

The first step is to find one solution to $27x + 14y=1$

An "obvious" solution is $(x,y)=(-1,2)$.

Assuming you want to have a general method for finding solutions to such problems...

Start with \begin{array}{c} 27 = 27(1) + 14(0) \\ 14 = 27(0)+14(1) \end{array}

The idea is to manipulate "things" so that the number on the left becomes a $1$.

For example, $13 = 27 - 14 = 27(1-0) + 14(0-1)= 27(1) + 14(^-1)$.

We end up with the list

\begin{array}{rcl} 27 &= &27(1) + 14(0) \\ 14 &= &27(0)+14(1) \\ 13 &= &27(1)+14(^-1) \end{array}

Next we see that $1=14 - 13 = 27(0-1)+14(1-(^-1))=27(^-1)+14(2)$. So the list looks like

\begin{array}{rcl} 27 &= &27(1) + 14(0) \\ 14 &= &27(0)+14(1) \\ 13 &= &27(1)+14(^-1) \\ 1 &= &27(^-1)+14(2) \end{array}

Next we find a solution to $27x + 14y=D$

Since $27(^-1)+14(2)=1$, then $27(-D)+14(2D)= D$

Finally, we solve $27x + 14y=D$

Suppose that $27x + 14y=D$ for some $x$ and $y$. Then \begin{align} 27x + 14y=D &= 27(-D)+14(2D)= D \\ 27(x+D) &= 14(2D-y) \\ \end{align}

Since $27 \mid 27(x+D)$, then $27 \mid 14(2D-y)$.

Since $\gcd(27,14)=1$, then $27 \mid 2D-y$.

Hence, for some integer, $t$

\begin{align} 2D - y &= 27t \\ y &= 2D-27t \end{align}

Next, we solve for $x$

\begin{align} 27x + 14y &= D \\ 27x + 14(2D-27t) &= D \\ 27x + 28D - 14(27)t &= D \\ 27x &= 14(27)t - 27D \\ x &= 14t - D \end{align}

So the general solution is

$$(x,y) = (14t-D, 2D-27t)$$

for all integers, $t$.

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I see you have already some interesting answers and I will try another way to explain.

Let us make prime number factorization of numbers $27$ and $14$:

$$27 = 2^0\times 3^3\times 7^0\\14=2^1\times3^0\times 7^1$$

They don't have any non-zero exponent for the same prime base. This means $27$ and $14$ are relatively prime. If they were not relative prime, they would have some common factor $K>1$ and we could write $$K(ax+by)=D$$ But since any number $D$ is not divisible by any given common factor $K>1$, we are sure to be able to hit it.

An example if we did not have relative prime numbers is $$27x+15y=D \Leftrightarrow 3(9x+5y)=D$$ Which we can see that it could only be sure to fit if $D$ was divisible by $3$.

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