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Currently I am designing a Kalman filter-based steering for my final paper in a driving simulator. I'm actually new to the Kalman filtering method but I've studied a couple of journals I can find, though I do have problems when designing my system. Apologies if there are mistakes in the following question since this is basically my first time into the system.

The proposed system has a purpose to predict the steering based on the target position.

From here, the state vector I'll be using is defined as

$$x = \begin{bmatrix} \alpha \\ v \\ \end{bmatrix} $$

where $\alpha$ is the steering angle and $v$ is the car's velocity. I'm also using the basic kinematics for the $F$ vector with

$$F = \begin{bmatrix} 1 & \Delta T \\ 0 & 1 \\ \end{bmatrix} $$

where $\Delta T$ will be the time step for the system. As for the measurement vector $z$, it'll comprise of $$z = \begin{bmatrix} \alpha_x \\ \alpha_y \\ v_x \\ v_y \\ \end{bmatrix} $$

which are positions and current speeds in regards to x and y axes, all in Cartesian. The positions for x and y are defined as

$$ x = \rho \times cos \theta $$ $$ y = \rho \times sin \theta $$

Where $\rho$ is the distance calculated based on the sensor readings and $\theta$ is the angle.

Given the measurements, I would also have to map the $h(x)$ vector (making this an Extended Kalman Filter) so that it'll form the eventual steering and velocity estimates using the following mapping.

$$h(\hat x) = \begin{bmatrix} arctan(\frac {2y}{x}) \\ \frac {v}{3.6} \\ \end{bmatrix} $$

With this, I have a couple of questions regarding to the difficulty I have:

1) According to the formula, the error $y$ is calculated by $z - h(\hat x)$, but given the difference of the matrices, are both the $z$ and $\hat x$ matrices being subtracted first before transformed into $h$ or not? I might perceive this the wrong way and this is one of the difficulties I have in understanding it. 2) How do I express $arctan(\frac {2y}{x})$ in matrix form such that it could be along the lines of the following normal filter $H$ matrix? $$H = \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 1 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 1 & 0 \\ \end{bmatrix} $$ Given that this would eventually form the Jacobian matrices for $F_j$ and $H_j$?

Thanks in advance!

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