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If x = a xor b, given the values of x and a can we find b? In other words, which function can be applied on both sides in the equation to get the value of b?

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XOR is its own inverse and it's commutative, so $x = a \oplus b \implies x\oplus a = a \oplus b \oplus a = 0 \oplus b = b$

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For any $b$ and $a$, it is true that $b = (\underbrace{a \operatorname{XOR} b}_{\textrm{your }x}) \operatorname{XOR}a$.

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