I'm dealing with the test of the International Mathematics Competition for University Students, 2011, and I've had a lot of difficulties, so I hope someone could help me to discuss the questions.

I've posted before the questions 2, 3 and 5, these last still open.

The question 4 says:

Let be $f(x)$ a polynomial with real coeficients and degree $n$. Supose that $\dfrac{f(k)-f(m)}{k-m}$ is integer for all the integers $0\leq k\lt m\leq n$. Prove that $a-b$ divides $f(a)-f(b)$ for any couple of distinct integers $a$ and $b$.

The only substantial thing that I've got is that:

Given any $k\in\{1,2,3,\dots,n-1\}$, we have



$f(k)-f(0)$ is integer by any $k\in\{1,2,3,\dots,n-1\}$.

I also have thinked that derivatives can be some relation, because of the type of fraction...

I thank very much.

Important Edit (October, 04)

I've found a document with these solutions and I'm studying them. These are the documents: http://www.imc-math.org.uk/imc2011/imc2011-day2-solutions.pdf and http://www.imc-math.org.uk/imc2011/imc2011-day1-solutions.pdf.

  • 3
    $\begingroup$ Seems like maybe $f(x)$ must have only integer coefficients (except possibly for the constant). $\endgroup$ – Alex R. Oct 4 '18 at 21:25

I don't think the derivative comes anywhere into this. However, the discrete version, i.e., forward differences, does come in in a sense. I'll just sketch a proof.

Let $g(x)=\frac{f(x)-f(0)}{x}$. Then $g(1),g(2),\dots,g(n-1)\in\mathbb{Z}$. Moreover, since $g$ is a polynomial of degree $n-1$, we have $$ 0=\Delta^n[g](x)=\sum_{k=0}^n\binom{n}{k}(-1)^{n-k}g(x+k) $$ giving $g(\mathbb{Z})\subseteq\mathbb{Z}$ inductively. Thus $$ g(x)=\sum_{k=0}^{n-1} c_k\binom{x}{k} $$ with $c_k\in\mathbb{Z}$, i.e., $$ f(x)=f(0)+x\sum_{k=0}^{n-1} c_k\binom{x}{k}=f(0)+\sum_{k=1}^n c'_k\binom{x}{k}. $$ with $c'_k\in\mathbb{Z}$.

Moreover, by examining deeper into the conditon $\dfrac{f(k)-f(m)}{k-m}\in\mathbb{Z}$ for $0\leq k<m\leq n$ and induction on $k$ noting $$ \begin{align*} \binom{a}{k}-\binom{b}{k}&=\sum_{j=1}^k\binom{a-b}{j}\binom{b}{k-j}\\ &=(a-b)\sum_{j=1}^k\frac1j\binom{a-b-1}{j-1}\binom{b}{k-j} \end{align*} $$ one can prove $c'_k$ is an integer multiple of $L_k:=\operatorname{lcm}(1,2,\dots,k)$ for each $k$. Hence the result follows.

  • $\begingroup$ Thanks very much, I'm trying to study your proof. I think I need study more about polynomials, but I believe that your proof is correct, so I'll accept your answer and continue studying. Thanks a lot for the great help! $\endgroup$ – Na'omi Oct 5 '18 at 15:19
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    $\begingroup$ Recall one way to define the binoimial coefficient $\binom{n}{k}$ is as the number of $k$-subsets of an $n$-set. The identity is easy obtained by splitting $[a]$ into a $b$-subset and a $a-b$-subset and consider how to choose a $k$-subset. The $\Delta$ is the forward difference operator $\Delta[f](n):=f(n+1)-f(n)$. $\endgroup$ – user10354138 Oct 12 '18 at 21:14
  • $\begingroup$ I thank you very much. For the first doubt, moreover, I've open a post here: math.stackexchange.com/questions/2953142/binomials-extensions. And for the second doubt, I didn't know about this difference operator, I'm researching abou this. Thanks very much and sorry my difficulties. $\endgroup$ – Na'omi Oct 12 '18 at 21:18

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