Does knowledge of all the geodesics of a Riemannian manifold suffice to determine the metric up to a scaling factor?
The metric completely characterizes the shape of a Riemannian manifold. However, knowledge of all the geodesics on a Riemannian manifold does not uniquely determine the metric.
This problem is a case of obtaining local properties from global ones. The metric is a local quantity; it depends only on the chosen point of the manifold and a local neighborhood around it. Geodesics, on the other hand, connect points on the manifold, appealing to a larger global structure of the manifold.
There are a variety of theorems dealing with the relationship between local and global properties in Riemannian geometry, a prolific example of which is the Hopf-Rinow theorem. This tells you that a Riemannian manifold is a complete metric space if and only if it is geodesically complete - that is, if at any point you can extend a geodesic infinitely far in any direction, the metric on a space is such that the manifold is complete. We can deduce a few interesting properties like this, but we cannot fully determine the metric from information about the geodesics.
So we can't fully determine the metric from information about the geodesics, but can we determine the metric up to a scaling factor from the geodesics?