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$E$ - elliptic curve on field $F_{2^4}$ with equetion $y^2 + y = x^3$.
I need to show, that for any $P \in E$, $3P = 0$.

Here is list of 16 field elements:
$0,1,t,t+1,$
$t^2,t^2+1,t^2+t,t^2+t+1,$
$t^3,t^3+1,t^3+t,t^3+t+1,t^3+t^2,t^3+t^2+1,t^3+t^2+t,t^3+t^2+t+1$

Let's define multiplication in the field as $a*b=c,$ where c is a remainder of division of $a*b$ by $t^4+t+1$
Now, we can clculate all elements of the field in cube:
$(0)^3 = 0$
$(1)^3 = 1$
$(t)^3 = t^3$
$(t+1)^3 = t^3+t^2+t+1$
$(t^2)^3 = t^3+t^2$
$(t^2+1)^3 = t^3+t$
$(t^2+t)^3 = 1$
$(t^2+t+1)^3 = 1$
$(t^3)^3 = t^3+t^2$
$(t^3+1)^3 = t^3+t^2+t+1$
$(t^3+t)^3 = t^3+t^2+t+1$
$(t^3+t+1)^3 = t^3+t^2$
$(t^3+t^2)^3 = t^3$
$(t^3+t^2+1)^3 = t^3+t$
$(t^3+t^2+t)^3 = t^3$
$(t^3+t^2+t+1)^3 = t^3+t^2$

We also can look at the curve equation like this: $y^2+y=y*(y+1)=x^3$.Thus, we can take any element from field, add $1$, multiply this two polynomials and check wheter it equals to any cube element or not.
$y=0 \Rightarrow 0*1=0$
$y=1 \Rightarrow 1*0=0$
$y=t \Rightarrow t*(t+1)=t^2+t$
$y=t+1 \Rightarrow (t+1)*t=t^2+t$
$y=t^2 \Rightarrow t^2*(t^2+1)=t^2+t+1$
$y=t^2+1 \Rightarrow (t^2+1)*t^2=t^2+t+1$
$y=t^2+t \Rightarrow (t^2+t)*(t^2+t+1)=1$
$y=t^2+t+1 \Rightarrow (t^2+t+1)*(t^2+t)=1$
$y=t^3 \Rightarrow t^3*(t^3+1)=t^2$
$y=t^3+1 \Rightarrow (t^3+1)*t^3=t^2$
$y=t^3+t \Rightarrow (t^3+t)*(t^3+t+1)=t$
$y=t^3+t+1 \Rightarrow (t^3+t+1)*(t^3+t)=t$
$y=t^3+t^2 \Rightarrow (t^3+t^2)*(t^3+t^2+1)=t+1$
$y=t^3+t^2+1 \Rightarrow (t^3+t^2+1)*(t^3+t^2)=t+1$
$y=t^3+t^2+t \Rightarrow (t^3+t^2+t)*(t^3+t^2+t+1)=t^2+1$
$y=t^3+t^2+t+1 \Rightarrow (t^3+t^2+t+1)*(t^3+t^2+t)=t^2+1$
That's how I found points from curve:
$(0,0),$
$(0,1),$
$(1,t^2+t),$
$(1,t^2+t+1)$
$(t^2+t,t^2+t),$
$(t^2+t,t^2+t+1)$
$(t^2+t+1,t^2+t),$
$(t^2+t+1,t^2+t+1)$

Now, I'm tpying to calculate $3P$ using formulas:
$P(x_1,y_1) + Q(x_2,y_2) = R(x_3,y_3)$
if $(x_1 = x_2)$
$x_3 = \left(\frac{x_1^2+y_1}{x_1}\right)^2 + \left(\frac{x_1^2+y_1}{x_1}\right)$
$y_3=(\left(\frac{x_1^2+y_1}{x_1}\right)+1)*x_3 + x_1^2$
if $(x_1 \ne x_2)$
$x_3 = \left(\frac{y_1+y_2}{x_1+x_2}\right)^2 + \left(\frac{y_1+y_2}{x_1+x_2}\right)+x_1+x_2$
$y_3=(\left(\frac{y_1+y_2}{x_1+x_2}\right)+1)*x_3 + \left(\frac{y_1*x_2+y_2*x_1}{x_1+x_2}\right)$
I understand that $3P = P+P+P$. But when I put actual numbers in them, I have, for example for point $(0,0)$ $x_3=\left(\frac{0}{0}\right)^2$. What is that? 0?

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  • $\begingroup$ Since $2=0$ in the field, $3/2$ is not defined. $\endgroup$ Commented Jun 2, 2018 at 11:25
  • $\begingroup$ First list all the elements of the field and then all the points of the curve. Have you done that? $\endgroup$
    – Somos
    Commented Jun 2, 2018 at 14:09
  • $\begingroup$ @Somos, I've found points of the curve, but I'm not sure what you mean by elements of the field. Could you give me some help with that? $\endgroup$
    – Daria
    Commented Jun 2, 2018 at 16:37
  • $\begingroup$ That is your problem. You are thinking of $\,\mathbb{Z}_{16}\,$ (integers modulo 16) which is only a ring. Please read Finite field article for some idea of what a finite field is, particularly in characteristic $2$. $\endgroup$
    – Somos
    Commented Jun 2, 2018 at 16:43
  • $\begingroup$ Also read the MSE question 2777107 Addition and Multiplication in $F_4$. $\endgroup$
    – Somos
    Commented Jun 2, 2018 at 16:51

2 Answers 2

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The doubling formula on this curve is particularly simple. Indeed, if $(\xi,\eta)$ is a point on the curve, then $[2](\xi,\eta)=(\xi^4,\eta^4+1)$.

Here’s why: Take your point $(\xi,\eta)=P$ on the curve, so that $\xi^3=\eta^2+\eta$. The derivative there, as @Somos has pointed out, is $\xi^2$, so that the line through $P$ with this slope is $Y=\xi^2X+?$, where you adjust “?” for the line to pass through $P$. You get the equation of the line to be $Y=\xi^2X+\eta^2$. Call the line $\ell$.

Now, what is the third intersection of $\ell$ with our curve, beyond the double intersection at $P$? Substitute $Y=\xi^2X+\eta^2$ into $Y^2+Y=X^3$ to get a cubic in $X$ with a double root at $\xi$ and one other: $$ (\xi^2X+\eta^2)^2+\xi^2X+\eta^2+X^3=(X+\xi)^2(X+\xi^4)\,, $$ as you can check. Thus the other intersection of $\ell$ with our curve is $(\xi^4,\xi^6+\eta^2)=(\xi^4,\eta^4)=[-2](\xi,\eta)$. Now, in all cases, for a point $(a,b)$ on our curve, its negative is $(a,b+1)$: the other intersection of the curve with the vertical line through $(a,b)$.

Since $[-2](\xi,\eta)=(\xi^4,\eta^4)$, we have $[2](\xi,\eta)=(\xi^4,\eta^4+1)$.

Now, I say that for every point $(\xi,\eta)$ with coordinates in the field with four elements, we get $[3](\xi,\eta)=\Bbb O$, the neutral point at infinity, the one with projective coordinates $(0,1,0)$. That is, every one of the nine points with coordinates in $\Bbb F_4$ is a three-torsion point. Indeed, for $\xi,\eta\in\Bbb F_4$, $\xi^4=\xi$ and $\eta^4=\eta$. Thus for an $\Bbb F_4$-rational point $(\xi,\eta)$ on our curve, we have $[2](\xi,\eta)=(\xi,\eta+1)=[-1](\xi,\eta)$. Adding $(\xi,\eta)$ to both sides of this equation, we get $[3](\xi,\eta)=\Bbb O$.

It only remains to enumerate the nine points of the curve with $\Bbb F_4$-coordinates. Calling the elements of the field $0,1,\omega,\omega^2$, where $\omega^2+\omega+1=0$, we see that the only points on the curve are $$ \Bbb O,(0,0),(0,1)(1,\omega),(1,\omega^2),(\omega,\omega),(\omega,\omega^2),(\omega^2,\omega),(\omega^2,\omega^2)\,. $$ You can check that when you pass to the larger field $\Bbb F_{16}$, you don’t get any more points!

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Okay, you have now almost all of the peices needed. There is one stumbling block. As the Wikipedia article Elliptic curve point multiplication states. For point doubling, you need to compute $\,\lambda = (3x_p^2+a)/(2y_p)\,$ but in characteristic $2$ you can't divide by two. We need a formula for point doubling that works for characteristic $2$. Our equation is $\, y^2 + y + x^3 = 0\,$ since $\, 1 = -1.\,$ Take the derivative WRT to $\,x\,$ to get $\, 2y\frac{dy}{dx} + \frac{dy}{dx} + 3x^2 = \frac{dy}{dx} + x^2 = 0.\,$ Thus, $\, m = x^2 \,$ is the slope of the tangent line at point $\,(x,y).\,$ Now suppose we have a point $\, P_0 = (x_0,y_0) \,$ on the curve. The equation of the line tangent at $\, P \,$ is $\, y = x_0^2(x + x_0) + y_0 . \,$ The other point of intersection $\, -2P_0 \,$ is a solution of $\, y^2 + y + x^3 = 0, \,$ thus $\, (x_0^2(x + x_0)+y_0)^2 + (x_0^2(x + x_0)+y_0) + x^3 = 0.\,$ In characteristic $2$, $\, (x+y)^2 = x + y, \,$ thus $\, x^2x_0^4 + x_0^6 + y_0^2 + x x_0^2 + x_0^3 + y_0 + x^3 = 0. \,$ Now $\, y_0^2 + y_0 + x_0^3 = 0, \,$ leaving $\, x^2x_0^4 + x_0^6 + x x_0^2 + x^3 = 0. \,$ But $\, x = x_0 \,$ is a double root and so the equation factors as $\, (x + x_0)^2(x + x_0^4) = 0. \,$ Now $\, x_1 := x_0^4 \,$ and $\, y_1 := x_0^2(x_0^4 + x_0) + y_0 = y_0 \,$ give $\, P_1 = (x_1,y_1) = -2P_0. \,$ To prove that $\, P_1 = P_0 \,$ we need $\, x_0 = x_0^4 \,$ which has four roots, namely $\,0, 1\,$ and $\, t^2+t, t^2+t+1, \,$ two cube roots of unity.

The point at infinity $\,P=\mathcal{O}\,$ is the identity for point addition, thus $\,P\!+\!P = P\!+P\!+\!P \!=\! P.\,$

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  • $\begingroup$ I didn't really get why $(0,y)+(0,y)=(0,y+1)$ because according to formulas this sum equals $(0,y)$ $\endgroup$
    – Daria
    Commented Jun 6, 2018 at 14:01

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