I've been reading up on some game theory concepts in order to better understand good ways to allocate benefits across a coalition (e.g. https://www.casact.org/library/astin/vol14no1/61.pdf). I've learned about Shapley Value, Nucleolus and some similar methods of specifying a unique point within the core.
However, I have a slightly different problem that I don't know how to approach. Suppose I have a game where I want to ensure an optimal group result, and I want a stable equilibrium (so I still want some features such as individual rationality and collective rationality), but in this game players can choose not to play at all. For example:
Suppose that Player 1 acting alone has utility -5 and Player 2 acting alone has utility -10. Also suppose that the coalition of Player 1 and Player 2 has utility of 1. Players 1 and 2 can both choose to play or not. What are some methods for defining a unique value within the core? Is there a direct translation of this problem into the more common problem where everyone has positive utility and we are merely allocating the grand coalition's benefit?