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I was trying to solve the optimization problem:

$$ \min \| p \|^2 \text{ subject to } l(p) = \epsilon$$

or to simplifying notation:

$$ \min f(x) \text{ subject to } g(x) = 0 $$

using Lagrange multipliers. Then I noticed that using the auxiliary equation we get:

$$ \min f(x) + \lambda g(x)$$

of course that satisfies the usual constraint that the objective and constraint are parallel:

$$ \nabla f(x) = - \nabla \lambda g(x) $$

but so does:

$$ \min \alpha f(x) + g(x)$$

where we get:

$$ \alpha = \frac{1}{\lambda} $$

however this second seems like a very different thing because it corresponds to constraint optimization problem:

$$ \min g(x) \text{ subject to } f(x) = 0 $$

which seems to me a completely different problem but in the light of the auxiliary equation and the parallel line/gradient condition they seem equivalent, even symmetric. Is this symmetry expected or is it just special because I only have 1 objective and 1 constraint but if I included more constraints (or even inequalities) it wouldn't hold.

I tried it out and even though I don't really understand why this works with more than 1 constraint it seems the auxiliary equation would have more constraints with each a different Lagrange multiplier so we can't just do the $\alpha = \frac{1}{\lambda}$ trick:

$$ f(x) + \lambda_1 g(x) + \lambda_2 h(x) $$

so it seems we can't do that trick. Is this right or did I miss something simple? It seemed too simple so I just wanted to double check I was right.

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    $\begingroup$ There's not a symmetry between the functions themselves (really, they can be anything), but rather the problems of optimizing each relative to the other being fixed. See en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Duality_(optimization) $\endgroup$ – Matthew Leingang Apr 20 '18 at 16:13
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    $\begingroup$ They are only related in the above in the sense that $\nabla f(x)$ and $\nabla g(x)$ lie on the same line at an extremum. However, this only works when you have a single constraint. Another way to think of it is that $\nabla f(x)$ is normal to the surface $g(x) = 0$. For a single $g$ this reduces to lying on the same line. $\endgroup$ – copper.hat Apr 20 '18 at 16:33
  • $\begingroup$ @copper.hat why doesn't that intuition work for 2 constraints? Perhaps the issue is that I don't understand very well how things look like or change when we have more constraints... $\endgroup$ – Pinocchio Apr 20 '18 at 16:39
  • $\begingroup$ A hyperplane has a natural dual notion of a normal. Informally, if two or more constraints are active, then the (affine approximation to) local feasible surface is no longer a hyperplane, so the geometric view is that you have containment rather than colinearity. $\endgroup$ – copper.hat Apr 20 '18 at 17:24
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This hasn't gotten so much to do with duality as it has with multiobjective optimization. You are treating $f$ and $g$ as objectives, and you can solve a multiobjective optimization problem with a weighted sum method or by constraining one of the objectives and optimizing the other(s).

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