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I am having a heck of a time Googling for this. But I want to learn the same kind of formal logic you might learn when studying for a computer science or math degree. Problem is I don't even know what I should be looking for. Prepositional logic? Boolean logic? Predicate logic? First order logic? Second order logic? Discrete mathematics? Something else?

I am just looking to get an all-around understanding of logic so I can be more literate in that area since it underlies so much else.

Are there any good resources for learning all of these things that doesn't require spending a ton of money or reading thousands of pages? Decent PDFs would be ideal if they exist.

Thank you very much in advance.

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  • $\begingroup$ "How to Prove It" and "How To Think Like a Mathematician" might be what you're looking for. $\endgroup$ – goblin Mar 10 '18 at 7:49
  • $\begingroup$ So.. like... what are you in to? I ask because it would be nice to know what you are looking to get out of a particular reference, or more importantly what you'd be bringing to the table as you dive into a text. (there are a lot of decent texts/pdfs/open-textbook projects; however some are tailored for particular audiences.) $\endgroup$ – Not Mike Mar 10 '18 at 8:00
  • $\begingroup$ May I humbly suggest the tutorial that comes with my DC Proof freeware that you can download from my homepage at www,dcproof.com It is a mathematically oriented introduction to the basic methods of proof including propositional and predicate logic. An easy to use proof checker is also included to give you immediate feedback on exercises. $\endgroup$ – Dan Christensen Mar 10 '18 at 14:13
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To help you decide what you want, you might try this Teach Yourself Logic Study Guide (i.e. heavily annotated reading list). Only the first few chapters will be relevant -- ignore the more advanced stuff.

An update: one of the top-recommended books, the Friendly Guide to Mathematical Logic, is now freely available as a PDF. A number of other recommendations are also freely (and officially!) available too

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