I am having a heck of a time Googling for this. But I want to learn the same kind of formal logic you might learn when studying for a computer science or math degree. Problem is I don't even know what I should be looking for. Prepositional logic? Boolean logic? Predicate logic? First order logic? Second order logic? Discrete mathematics? Something else?
I am just looking to get an all-around understanding of logic so I can be more literate in that area since it underlies so much else.
Are there any good resources for learning all of these things that doesn't require spending a ton of money or reading thousands of pages? Decent PDFs would be ideal if they exist.
Thank you very much in advance.