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Let $A \subset \mathbb{R}.$

Assume :

$(\star )$ Let A be an infinite set.

Let $f$ be a surjective function $f: \mathbb{N} \rightarrow A.$

The problem:

Show: There exists a bijective function $g: \mathbb{N} \rightarrow A.$

Latest attempt:

Let $A=${$a_1,a_2,a_3, .......$} , $n \in \mathbb{N}.$

Elements of $A$ may appear more than once, I.e. for some $m \not= n$ we have $a_n=a_m.$

Hence there is a subset of $T$ of $N$ such that

$T \sim A,$ i.e.

there is a bijection $g:T \rightarrow A.$

$T$ being a subset of $N$ implies $T$ is countable, i.e there is a bijection $h$:

$h: N \rightarrow T.$

The composition

$F: N\rightarrow A$ defined by

$F= g\circ h$ is a bijection , and we are done.

Note: Used elements of Rudin, Principles , 3rd Edition,Theorem 2.12

Cf. On countable sets

Note: $(\star)$ was not assumed (forgot) in the original version of the problem, hence the answer by Almagast.

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    $\begingroup$ This can't be true. The assumption implies that $A$ is countable and what you want to prove would imply that it is not. $\endgroup$ – Arnaud Mortier Feb 20 '18 at 10:30
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    $\begingroup$ Take $A=\{0\}$ if you are not convinced. $\endgroup$ – Arnaud Mortier Feb 20 '18 at 10:32
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    $\begingroup$ Existence of $f$ says $|A| \leq \aleph_0$. Existence of $g$ says $|A| = \mathfrak{c}$. But $\mathfrak{c}>\aleph_0$, contradiction. $\endgroup$ – Ivo Terek Feb 20 '18 at 10:32
  • $\begingroup$ Mortier.Thanks, The only thing I try is to weed out the multiples to construct a injective fct. $\endgroup$ – Peter Szilas Feb 20 '18 at 10:34
  • $\begingroup$ Sorry. A typo, N!! $\endgroup$ – Peter Szilas Feb 20 '18 at 10:35
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The result is false. Take $A=\{1\}$. There is a surjective function $f:\mathbb{N}\to A$ namely $f(n)=1$ for all $n$, but no bijection.

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  • $\begingroup$ Almagest.Thank you.Let A be a countably infinite set.The idea here is that the OP defines 'countable ' by f: N \rightarrow A , f surjective, and claims it is easy to see that a bijection exists. I had this in mind in my not very elegant attempt. But forget to specify A.Thanks.+1. $\endgroup$ – Peter Szilas Feb 20 '18 at 16:01
  • $\begingroup$ @PeterSzilas But it is still hard to rescue this question. If you specify that $A$ is a countably infinite set, then you are specifying that there is a bijection between $A$ and $\mathbb{N}$ and there is nothing to prove. If you specify that there is an injection $g$ from $N$ to $A$ and a surjection $f$ from $N$ to $A$, then you are effectively asking for a special case of the Schroder Bernstein theorem. $\endgroup$ – almagest Feb 20 '18 at 17:26
  • $\begingroup$ Almagast. Thank you for your interest.The question is taken from a comment in Foster Analysis. Foster calls a set A(not empty) countable if there is a surjective mapping from N to A., I.e. there is a sequence (x_n) such that A = { x_n, n in N}.Means we could have for some indexes x_n=x_m, n not=m. Now in a note he says one can, for a countable set , find a bijective mapping N to A.Given a surjective mapping f (questions) , I tried clumsily to get rid of the elements x_k=x_i= ., k not =i ,and find a injective mapping g N to A .But cannot easily define an bijective g, given a injective f . $\endgroup$ – Peter Szilas Feb 20 '18 at 17:55
  • $\begingroup$ That is because Schroder Bernstein is quite hard to prove. It sounds absolutely obvious, but not many people manage to prove it without seeing a proof first! $\endgroup$ – almagest Feb 20 '18 at 18:10
  • $\begingroup$ Almagast. Appreciate your support.Thanks for your comments.Greetings, Peter $\endgroup$ – Peter Szilas Feb 20 '18 at 18:17

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