# Super confused by SQUAD algorithm for quaternion interpolation

I have been trying to wrap my mind around the SQUAD algorithm (sometimes called "Spherical Cubic Interpolation", sometimes called "Spherical Quadratic Interpolation").

You can find implementations and algorithms here, here and here.

If I understand it correctly it's supposed to smooth out rotations using 4 quaternions that are in sequential order in an animation with rotation keyframes.

Now I do get SLERP and I claim to have a fairly good visualization of the hypersphere and how quaternions describe it's "surface" (does the term "surspace" exist?)

However I was confused as to why the SQUAD algorithm should work. To understand it better I simply took some paper and drew the algorithm in 0.2 steps using 2d points and LERP, pretending the paper is the surface (surspace?) of the unit hypersphere. The curves I am getting look like they are exact mirror images of what I think I actually want to have.

Maybe I am still lacking some fundamental knowledge of quaternions. I have attached a scan of my drawings: So, my concrete questions:

• Am I doing something wrong?
• Am I misunderstanding what SQUAD does or what it is for?
• Am I fundamentally misunderstanding quaternions and the curves I get are actually super fine?
• Neat diagram. :) – Mateen Ulhaq Jun 10 '18 at 9:11

Okay, so SQUAD does exactly what I did on paper. But it's also not broken.

My mistake was: SQUAD doesn't expect 4 consecutive quaternions q0, q1, q2 and q3. SQUAD expects q1 and q2, together with 2 helper quaternions a and b that have to be calculated beforehand.

The helper quaternions a and b will form a quadrangle with q1 and q2 that will result in curves resembling the mirrored curves in my drawing. Therefore using SQUAD on q1, q2, a and b will result in smooth interpolations over a list of rotation keyframes.

I haven't found any detailed documentation or explanation on this unfortunately, but the DirectX SDK from Microsoft has a SquadSetup method that helped me figure this out. The open source library Cesium JS also has an implementation Quaternion.computeInnerQuadrangle for finding the helper quaternions a and b to be used with SQUAD.

I haven't really understood why the helper quaternions are calculated in the way they are, but when I implement it, the result doesn't look wrong. Considering my original question is answered, this specific issue can be adressed in a separate question.

To help me get a better understanding for what's going on, I made a simple WebGL demo comparing different interpolation methods, including SQUAD the correct way and as I previously wrongly used/understood it. The demo generates 10 random unit quaternions and then interpolates between them indefinitely. It shows 12 WebGL canvas instances, 2 per algorithm. The top canvas displays the quaternions in 4d space and the current interpolated quaternion, the bottom canvas displays a cube that is being rotated by the current quaternion.

• Could the person who downvoted, explain why they downvoted? – Max Vollmer Feb 18 '18 at 22:38
• The answer is not explaining what SQUAD is for and what it actually does. The answer is limited to point out external sources which are not explainig anything at all. – Mauricio Cele Lopez Belon Feb 19 '18 at 1:55
• @MauricioCeleLopezBelon I have updated my answer to be a bit more elaborate. Hope it helps! – Max Vollmer Feb 19 '18 at 10:33