There is no such regular polyhedra whose volume is equal to the difference between the volumes of its circumsphere and its insphere.
Now this should be pretty much straightforward to prove (or disprove) as there are only $5$ regular polyhedra. I have verified it myself for the cube but the others seem to be a bit too daunting, especially the icosahedron and the dodecahedron. I assume that the inspheres and circumspheres of the $5$ platonic solids are concentric spheres and it was true for the cube but that is as far as I have been able to go. My imaginative powers are incredibly weak and I would probably slap my head once I see how the parts of the proof involving the icosahedron and the dodecahedron are done.
By the way, is it necessary to try out all $5$ platonic solids or can it be proved by showing that the $n$ (denoting number of edges) required for this to be true is not a positive integer? Thanks in advance!
Bonus: I am almost sure that one or the other irregular polyhedra will not obey this conjecture (pardon my terminology if it is wrong). Can anyone find (at least) one such polyhedron?
$(1)$ The circumsphere must pass through all the vertices of the polyhedron.
$(2)$ The insphere must be tangent to all the faces of the polyhedron.
$(3)$ The polyhedron can not be a spherical polyhedron.
I personally believe that a truncated pyramid will suffice easily. Can anyone find other counter-examples? Good luck!