If all 10 points lie along a line, then you can pick any two points, find the equation for the line through those, and that line will pass through the other eight points. This is because "two points determine a line."
You should know, though, that 10 arbitrarily chosen points don't necessarily all lie along a line. Indeed the points in your question do not lie along a line:
You can get a line that approximates the points as nearly as possible by "linear regression". In R, you can get the intercept and slope of the regression line with the
lm function (for "linear model"):
> mydata = read.csv("~/tmp/known-points.csv")
lm(formula = mydata)