This is exercise 11.2 in Geometry: Euclid and Beyond by Hartshorne.
Question: Two circles $\Gamma $ and $\Gamma' $that meet at a point A are tangent if and only if the tangent line to $\Gamma $ at A is equal to the tangent line to $\Gamma' $ at A.
Def'N: We say that a line $l$ is tangent to a circle $\Gamma $ if $l$ and $\Gamma $ meet in just one point A. We say that a circle $\Gamma $ is tangent to another circle $\triangle $ if $\Gamma $ and $\triangle $ have just one point in common.
We also have the following Corollary: If two circles meet at a point A but are not tangent, then they have exactly two points in common.
I also attached a list of the all axioms in the stated form that my book is using.
I1)For every two points A and B there exists a line a that contains them both.
I2)There exist at least two points on a line.
I3)There exist at least three points that do not lie on the same line.
Axioms of betweeness
B1) If a point B lies between points A and C, B is also between C and A, and there exists a line containing the distinct points A, B, C.
B2) If A and C are two points, then there exists at least one point B on the line AC such that C lies between A and B.
B3) Of any three points situated on a line, there is no more than one which lies between the other two.
B4) Pasch's Axiom: Let A, B, C be three points not lying in the same line and let a be a line lying in the plane ABC and not passing through any of the points A, B, C. Then, if the line a passes through a point of the segment AB, it will also pass through either a point of the segment BC or a point of the segment AC.
Axioms of congruence
$C_1$. Given a line segment AB, and given a ray r originating at a point C, there exists a unique point D on the ray r such that $AB \cong CD$.
$C_2$. If $AB \cong CD$ and $AB \cong EF$, then $CD \cong EF$. Every line segment is congruent to itself.
$C_3$. (Addition). Given three points $A$, $B$, $C$ on a line satisfying $A * B * C$, and three further points D, E, F on a line satisfying $D * E * F$, if $AB \cong DE$ and $BC \cong EF$, then $AC \cong DF$.
C4. Given an angle $\angle BAC $ and given a ray $ DF$ there exists a unique ray $DE$ on a given side of the line $DF$ such that $\angle BAC \cong \angle EDF$
C5. Transitivity holds for congruence of angles and every angle is congruent to itself.
E. (Circle-circle intersection Axiom).
Given two circles $\Gamma,\Gamma' $ if $\Gamma' $ contains at least one point inside $\Gamma $, and $\Gamma' $ contains at least one point outside $\Gamma$, then $\Gamma $and $\Gamma'$ will meet.