I know that this is an old post but hopefully somebody is still interested. There is an old result of Emilie Haynsworth and Michael Drazin that a necessary and sufficient condition for a real matrix $A$ to have all real eigenvalues with $n$ linearly independent eigenvectors is that there exists a positive semidefinite matrix $S$ such that $AS$ is a symmetric matrix.
In the case where $S$ is positive definite then $A$ is self-adjoint under a modified inner product: $\langle v,w\rangle=v^T S w$
The Drazin-Haynsworth paper is below. Haynsworth wrote a number of nice papers on questions like this in the 60's.
I don't know if you want the matrices to have no eigenvector deficiency. If one drops the requirement that the matrix have $n$ linearly independent eigenvectors then I don't know but I doubt that there is a very nice condition. I hope that you find this helpful.