The best way to under stand the three (3) terms is in the context of the History of Mathematics. Also, the notion of Logical Equivalence is also useful in our understanding.
Think of the various ways in which the Parallel Lines Axiom can be replaced by other Statements which turn out to be Logically Equivalent. So,
(1) Perpendicular is usually associated with "dropping a perpendicular from a point,"
and it only presupposes 2 Dimensions in the form of a Single Plane. And no Angularity (Angles) are assumed. For example, Given a Line (Horizontal) with 2 Congruent Circles intersecting at 2 Points) on it (the Centers lie on the Line), the line "Dropped" from the Top to the Bottom, forms a Perpendicular. Notice that nothing is said about Angles.
(2) Orthogonal Line is defined as a line with a Right Angle. And since all Right Angles are Equal (one of Euclid's Axioms) every Orthogonal Line implies 4 Rays from the point of intersection.
Notice that one can prove (probably, depending on who you are and which axioms you choose)
that every Orthogonal is a Perpendicular, and every Perpendicular is an Orthogonal.
(3) The Normal is a Perpendicular to a Plane Tangent to a Surface. So at least three (3) Dimensions. Generalizing, every Pair of Dimensions produced a distinct "new' Plane, an for each a Normal may or can be Defined which lies in the "next" dimension of the given 2 - the restriction is that the Normal only has One Point common to the Plane it intersects, so it lies in the "other" Dimension than the 2 which it is Perpendicular or Orthogonal to.
Any Ray from the Point to which the Normal is Defined forms a Plane, and in that Plane the Normal forms a Perpendicular which is also an Orthogonal. Adding Dimensions is merely adding new Panes wherein a new Perpendicular(s), Orthogonal(s), and Normal(s0 are introduced.
Hope this answers your excellent question.