If we know that $f$ is continuous, how can we show that $\sqrt{f}$ is continuous? (Assume that $f(x) \ge 0$ for all $x \in D$)

I find this answer if $f $ is continuous then is $\sqrt f $continuous? but I am not sure that I agree with his response.

Since $f$ is continuous we know that there exist a $\delta\in\mathbb{N}$ such that,

$\left|f(x)+f(y)\right|<\epsilon^2\mbox{ whenever }|x-y|<\delta$


$\left|\sqrt{f(x)}-\sqrt{f(y)}\right|<\sqrt{\left|f(x)+f(y)\right|}<\epsilon\mbox{ whenever }|x-y|<\delta$

Do we actually know that there exists a $\delta$ such that $|f(x) +f(y)| \lt \epsilon^{2}$? I would agree that there is a $\delta$ such that $|f(x) -f(y)| \lt \epsilon^{2}$

Intuitively, I feel that $\delta \lt \epsilon^{2}$ would work, but I am not sure how to show this.

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    $\begingroup$ $g(x) = \sqrt{x}$ is continuous. Composition of continuous functions is continuous. $\endgroup$ – Noé AC Aug 4 '17 at 21:42
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    $\begingroup$ $f(x)=1$ is continuous and $|f(x)+f(y)|=2, \forall x,y\in \mathbb{R}.$ $\endgroup$ – mfl Aug 4 '17 at 21:45
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    $\begingroup$ just use math.stackexchange.com/questions/527855/… $\endgroup$ – jimjim Aug 4 '17 at 21:48

Let $x_0 \in D$ and $x_n \in D$ such that $x_n \rightarrow x_0$.

Then from the continuity of $f$ we have that $f(x_n) \rightarrow f(x_0) \geqslant 0$ .

If $f(x_0)=0$ then from continuity of $\sqrt{x}$ we have that $\sqrt{f(x_n)} \rightarrow 0= \sqrt{f(x_0)}$

If $f(x_0)>0$ then $$|\sqrt{f(x_n)}-\sqrt{f(x_0)}|= \frac{|f(x_n)-f(x_0)|} {\sqrt{f(x_n)} + \sqrt{f(x_0)}} \leqslant \frac{|f(x_n)-f(x_0)|}{\sqrt{f(x_0)}} \rightarrow 0 $$

$x_0$ was an arbitrary point in $D$ thus $f$ is continuous in $D$

  • $\begingroup$ Why do we need to say "$x_0$ was an arbitrary point"? How is arbitrary point related to continuity? $\endgroup$ – user13985 Sep 13 '20 at 16:06
  • $\begingroup$ @user13985 I mean arbitrary point in $D$. $\endgroup$ – Marios Gretsas Sep 13 '20 at 18:27
  • $\begingroup$ Would you mind write this in $\epsilon - \delta$ proof? I'm trying to write it let this, don't know if I'm doing it right: "Let $(x_n)$ be a sequence in D that converges to $x_0$..." $\endgroup$ – user13985 Sep 13 '20 at 20:44
  • $\begingroup$ A separate question, in: "If f(x_0) then from continuity of $\sqrt(x)...$, how do you show $sqrt(x)$ is continuous, instead of assuming it? $\endgroup$ – user13985 Sep 14 '20 at 14:50
  • $\begingroup$ @user13985 you can do what i did in the last lines of my proof using the epsilon-delta definition $\endgroup$ – Marios Gretsas Sep 14 '20 at 18:59

Note that $\sqrt{a}+\sqrt{b-a} \ge \sqrt{b}$ for $0 \le a \le b$. As such, $$\sqrt{f(x)} \le \sqrt{f(y)} + \sqrt{f(x)-f(y)},$$ when $f(x) \ge f(y)$. Similarly, $$\sqrt{f(y)} \le \sqrt{f(x)} + \sqrt{f(y)-f(x)},$$ when $f(y) \ge f(x)$. Consequently, $$\left|\sqrt{f(x)}-\sqrt{f(y)}\right| \le \sqrt{|f(x)-f(y)|}.$$

Since $f(x)$ is continuous, there exists an $\epsilon > 0$ such that $|f(x)-f(y)| <\epsilon^2$ for $|x-y|<\delta$. As such, $|\sqrt{f(x)}-\sqrt{f(y)}| < \epsilon$ when $|x-y|<\delta$. Therefore, $\sqrt{f(x)}$ is also continuous.


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