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Find a polynomial p(x) that simultaneously has both the following properties. (i) When p(x) is divided by x^100 the remainder is the constant polynomial 1. (ii) When p(x) is divided by (x-2)^3 the remainder is the constant polynomial 2.

Though I could find the polynomial by taking derivative (works better because the remainders are simple),I wanted to understand how CRT gives the polynomial.

The solution states the following: x^100 and (x − 2)^3 do not share a common factor, you know without any work that a polynomial with given properties must exist. The same Euclidean algorithm (but now with polynomials) gives a systematic way to find it. In the given problem we could use a different trick because the specified remainders here were rather simple (constants).But there is a conceptual way as well by implementing the Chinese remainder theorem.

I am new and poor with Latex.And thank you in advance.

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We are given the system $$ \begin{cases} p(x) \equiv 1 \mod{x^{100}} \\ p(x) \equiv 2 \mod{(x-2)^3}. \end{cases}$$ The first line indicates that $$ p(x) = 1 + g(x) x^{100}$$ for some polynomial $g(x)$. Inserting into the second line gives that $$ 1 + g(x) x^{100} = 2 \mod (x-2)^3,$$ or rather that $$ g(x) x^{100} + h(x) (x-2)^3 = 1$$ for some polynomials $g(x)$ and $h(x)$. This equation has a solution since $x^{100}$ and $(x-2)^3$ are relatively prime. Note that this is very similar to questions looking like $$ 3x + 5y = 1,$$ or more generally $$ ax + by = 1,$$ which are traditionally solved using the Euclidean algorithm and back-substitution.

It happens to be that this Euclidean algorithm and back-substitution is gross, and I wouldn't recommend doing it by hand. But you can see the actual result using Wolfram|Alpha's implementation.

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