Why measured angles in degrees and call those triangles important when degrees are a convention unrelated to the natural division of angles. For example 3°, 7°, 9° and 11° are all terrible divisions of angle with little mathematical meaning. I suggest these angles are human divisions with little significance in regard to appearing as integers in our poor conversions. I suggest 180° and 90° are important as 1/2 and 1/4 of a whole turn and NOT the fact that they appear as integers in some randomly chosen divisional selection of 360 that the Babylonians dreamt up and that society procrastinated from fixing for 2000 years.
My opinion is that angular divisions should be based on real geometric divisions of a circle that can be constructed with compass and straight edge. Instead of handing our young children devices that can not be constructed from the other devices. Children can NOT make protractors on a piece of paper from the geometric tools at their disposal. Isn't that strange and almost deceitful to do to them? It's like we are training children to think that integer number of degrees have some real significance and not just happen to line up with the constructional ones because some fractions of our poor divisions line up with the more geometrically true divisions.
Angles are fractions of a whole turn. Only some angles are important when the angle is measured in integer degrees. The question is asking which triangles have angles of even divisions of 1/360th of a turn. ie: if you measured your triangles with radian angles, then their would be only 3 integer angles per turn: 1,2 and 3 rads. Which can not be summed to make triangles of pi rad degrees. And the answer to your question would be: "no triangle like that exist"
A more general question would be: which triangles have integer length sides and angles that are all rational fractions of 1/2 turn (180 degrees).
For example: what if there was a triangle like you described having internal angles of 1/7(360°), 2/7(360°) and 4/7(360°) with integer sides, wouldn't you want to know? Angles measured in degrees would miss this triangle.
Comparison of degree angle vs rational angle triangles:
60°:60°:60° = rational angles 1/3:1/3:1/3 = 1:1:1
30°:60°:90° = rational angles 1/6:2/6:3/6 = 1:2:3
36°:72°:72° = rational angles 1/5:2/5:2/5 = 1:2:2
45°:45°:90° = rational angles 1/4:1/4:2/4 = 1:1:2
But now notice:
rational angles 1/7 : 2/7 : 4/7 = 1 : 2 : 4 != degree angles ~25.71° : ~51.42° : ~205.71°
...which is a triangle (if it had integer sides) that would be excluded from the set of triangles with integer degrees. But since all the angles are proportions of a common angle (1/14th of a full turn), isn't this triangle special?
As further evidence this question is limited (because of degrees) is that: No triangle has integer sides. The length of the side of triangle is dependent on the scale of the ruler to measure it. For example, equilateral triangles almost never have integer sides unless you declare it to be so and make that side to be the ruler of measure. The important fact is really the proportion of one side to another. Because only one specific equilateral triangles really has sides of one. But all equilateral triangles have sides that divide into each other evenly to produce a ratio of 1:1
- this argument in not an answer, but would not fit within comment bounds