# What is the meaning of the math symbol $\because$?

This is essentially a $\therefore$ symbol upside down, and I have seen it in some proofs, not many. What does it mean?

• Hint: If I can't find out a symbol I try to draw it here: detexify.kirelabs.org/classify.html most of the time it's recognized (your symbol was a bit hard though, but it recognized it on the second try) Commented Apr 13, 2017 at 7:39
• @VerenaHaunschmid That site looks really cool, but I still can't get it to do anything more than three dots in horizontal line for the symbol in question :) Although, trying to draw the "therefore" sign I wound up with the "because" sign by accident lol Commented Apr 13, 2017 at 14:34
• @VerenaHaunschmid This site worked better for me. It's not for LaTeX, but it does Unicode, which is helpful in most cases. Once you find what the character is called, you can probably figure out how to use it or look it up on Google. Commented Apr 13, 2017 at 16:38
• @BrianJ: I found that it initially gave me five symbols of the form "three dots in a horizontal line", but it offered a "Show more" link, and the next five symbols included the desired one. (That said, I'm not sure that finding out how to write a symbol in LaTeX is, in general, sufficient for finding out what it means.) Commented Apr 14, 2017 at 0:58
• @mbomb007 thanks, that tool looks also very useful! Commented Apr 18, 2017 at 12:38

The inverted form of the therefore sign ( $\therefore$ ) used in proofs before logical consequences, is known as the because sign ( $\because$ ) and it is used in proofs before reasoning.

This symbol just means 'because'. If it was facing up, it means 'therefore'.

Kinda feel like this is too short but I guess there's not much to this question.

• I read the answer as "It's just because. Period." Couldn't help laughing... +1 Commented Apr 13, 2017 at 14:09
• I suggest putting "because" and therefore in quotes or italics to avoid this ambiguity.
– user856
Commented Apr 13, 2017 at 17:55
• It's sometimes read as "since". Commented Apr 13, 2017 at 23:55
• Maybe you could offer some speculation as to why one seems to be used more than the other. Commented Apr 14, 2017 at 1:13

$\therefore$ You will have seen it next to the conclusions ... it is equivalent to "therefore", "then", "consequently", "in conclusion", "we obtain" and a long etcetera.

Its inverse is $\because$ that it means << because >>.